Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells. The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells.
He was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize along with Sir John Gurdon “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent.”
“The International Meningioma Society” was formed in September 2006 at the Mt. Fuji Meeting hosted by Kawase and aims at advancing the art of science of the field of clinical care and research in meningiomas and thereby promote the best possible care for patients suffering from meningiomas.
In 2006 a study of Flores from the Unidade de Neurocirurgia, Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasília, Brazil most of the lesions were supraclavicular (62%). Twenty-one cases occurred due to traction (60%), 9 to gun shot wound (25%), 3 to compression (8.5%) and two perforation/laceration (5.7%). Motorcycle accidents were the cause of trauma in 54% of patients. CT myelography demonstrated root avulsion in 16 cases (76%). Partial spontaneous neurological recovery was observed in 43% of the patients. Neuropathic pain occurred in 25 (71%) cases, and the use of some oral intake drugs (as amitriptyline or carbamazepine) controlled it in 64% of times.