Improvements in multidisciciplinary neurocritical care and advancements in medical and surgical treatment have contributed to a decline in the case fatality rate of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1).
A greater proportion of patients, therefore, are surviving their initial hemorrhagic event but remain at increased risk of a number of complications.
The case fatality after aneurysmal haemorrhage is 50%; one in eight patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage dies outside hospital. Rebleeding is the most imminent danger; a first aim is therefore occlusion of the aneurysm 2).
Prothrombotic states of early brain injury (EBI) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aSAH determine morbidity and mortality.
The outcome depends on their condition on arrival at the hospital. However, a small number of patients recover from an initially poor condition.
Generally aSAH has a very high mortality (>25%) and significant morbidity (>50%) among the survivors, and most survivors experience significant cognitive decline across multiple domains, including executive function 3).
Associated with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) typically has a poor outcome. SAH with ICH tends to have a worse prognosis than SAH alone.
It has a high socioeconomic impact as it tends to affect younger patients. The NCEPOD study looking into management of aSAH has recommended that neurovascular units in the United Kingdom should aim to secure cerebral aneurysms within 48 h and that delays because of weekend admissions can increase the mortality and morbidity attributed to aSAH.
A study provides important data showing excess in-hospital mortality of patients with SAH on weekend admissions served by the United Kingdom's National Health Service.; However, there were no effects of weekend admission on long-term outcomes 4).
Clinical prediction models were developed with individual patient data from 10 936 patients and validated with data from 3355 patients after development of the model. In the validation cohort, a core model including patient age, premorbid hypertension, and neurological grade on admission to predict risk of functional outcome had good discrimination, with an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.82). When the core model was extended to a “neuroimaging model,” with inclusion of clot volume, aneurysm size, and location, the AUC improved to 0.81 (0.79 to 0.84). A full model that extended the neuroimaging model by including treatment modality had AUC of 0.81 (0.79 to 0.83). Discrimination was lower for a similar set of models to predict risk of mortality (AUC for full model 0.76, 0.69 to 0.82). All models showed satisfactory calibration in the validation cohort.
The prediction models reliably estimate the outcome of patients who were managed in various settings for ruptured intracranial aneurysms that caused subarachnoid haemorrhage. The predictor items are readily derived at hospital admission. The web based SAHIT prognostic calculator (http://sahitscore.com) and the related app could be adjunctive tools to support management of patients 5).
Systematic reviews for clinical prognostic factors and clinical prediction tools in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) face a number of methodological challenges. These include within and between study patient heterogeneity, regional variations in treatment protocols, patient referral biases, and differences in treatment, and prognosis viewpoints across different cultures 6).
It is critical to determine the neural basis for executive deficits in aSAH, in order to better understand and improve patient outcomes.
In a tertiary care center in India, despite recent advances in the treatment of patients with aSAH, the morbidity and mortality rates have failed to improve significantly in unselected patients and natural cohorts. This may be attributed to the natural history of aSAH, and calls for new strategies to diagnose and treat such patients before the catastrophe 7).
In the series of Nieuwkamp et al., despite an increase in the mean age of patients with SAH, case-fatality rates have decreased by 17% between 1973 and 2002 and show potentially important regional differences. This decrease coincides with the introduction of improved management strategies 8).
The case fatality after aneurysmal haemorrhage is 50%; one in eight patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage dies outside hospital.
Mortality is 10% within first few days
30-day mortality rate was 46% in one series, and in others over half the patients died within 2 weeks of their SAH.
overall mortality is 45% (range: 32—67%)
causes of mortality
neurogenic stunned myocardium
about 8% die from progressive deterioration from the initial hemorrhage
of those reaching neurosurgical care, vasospasm kills 7%, and causes severe deﬁcit in another 7%.
about 30% of survivors have moderate to severe disability.
about 66 % of those who hove successful aneurysm clipping never return to the same quality of life as before the SAH.
Individuals who have aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) experience decreased health-related qualities of life (HRQoLs) that persist after the primary insult.
Data collected from the CONSCIOUS-1 trial was used to extract 29 clinical variables including SAH presentation, hospital procedures, and demographic information in addition to 5 HRQoL outcome variables for 256 individuals. A partial least-squares analysis was performed by calculating a heterogeneous correlation matrix and applying singular value decomposition to determine components that best represent the correlations between the 2 sets of variables. Bootstrapping was used to estimate statistical significance.
The first 2 components accounting for 81.6% and 7.8% of the total variance revealed significant associations between clinical predictors and HRQoL outcomes. The first component identified associations between disability in self-care with longer durations of critical care stay, invasive intracranial monitoring, ventricular drain time, poorer clinical grade on presentation, greater amounts of cerebral spinal fluid drainage, and a history of hypertension. The second component identified associations between disability due to pain and discomfort as well as anxiety and depression with greater body mass index, abnormal heart rate, longer durations of deep sedation and critical care, and higher World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies and Hijdra scores.
By applying a data-driven, multivariate approach, we identified robust associations between SAH clinical presentations and HRQoL outcomes 10).
Quantitative estimation of the hemorrhage volume associated with aneurysm rupture is a tool of assessing prognosis.
A prospective cohort of 206 patients consecutively admitted with the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to Hospital 12 de Octubre were included in the study. Subarachnoid, intraventricular, intracerebral, and total bleeding volumes were calculated using analytic software. For assessing factors related to prognosis, univariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression) were performed. The relative importance of factors in determining prognosis was established by calculating their proportion of explained variation. Maximum Youden index was calculated to determine the optimal cut point for subarachnoid and total bleeding volume.
Variables independently related to prognosis were clinical grade at admission, age, and the different bleeding volumes. The proportion of variance explained is higher for subarachnoid bleeding. The optimal cut point related to poor prognosis is a volume of 20 mL both for subarachnoid and total bleeding.
Volumetric measurement of subarachnoid or total bleeding volume are both independent prognostic factors in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A volume of more than 20 mL of blood in the initial noncontrast computed tomography is related to a clear increase in poor outcome risk 11).
While advanced age is already recognized as an independent risk factor for a poor functional outcome following an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), it is also important to investigate the critical age for defining a higher risk population among elderly patients and the clinical grade at admission in order to provide a prognostic description and help guide the management of patients aged ≥ 70 years.
A retrospective study included 165 patients aged 70-90 years who underwent surgical or endovascular treatment for a ruptured aneurysm. In addition to medical and radiological data, telephone interviews were used to obtain the 1-year functional outcome.
A multivariate analysis revealed age (p = 0.001) and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade (p = 0.001), regardless of the treatment modalities (surgical versus endovascular), as significant risk factors for a poor outcome, while a receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed 75 years as an appropriate cutoff value for the patient age to predict a poor 1-year functional outcome (area under the curve: 0.683). For the patients aged 70-75 years with good (1-3) and poor (4-5) WFNS grades, 81.9 % and 42.9 % achieved a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-3), respectively, whereas for the patients over the critical age (> 75 years) with good and poor WFNS grades, 54.8 % and 5.9 % achieved a favorable outcome, respectively.
The long-term outcome for elderly patients with an aneurysmal SAH is affected primarily by the clinical condition at admission and the patient's age in relation to the critical age (> 75 years), regardless of the treatment modalities, including surgical clipping and endovascular coiling 12).
Early recording of C reactive protein may prove useful in detecting those good grade patients who are at greater risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage 13).
Higher early IL6 serum levels after aSAH are associated with poor outcome at discharge. In addition, involvement of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in the early inflammatory reaction after aSAH has been demonstrated 14).
The APOΕε4 polymorphism was analysed in 147 patients with aSAH. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared to those found in a gender- and area-matched control group of healthy individuals (n = 211). Early cerebral vasospasm (CVS) was identified and treated according to neurointensive care unit (NICU) guidelines. Neurological deficit(s) at admittance and at 1-year follow-up visit was recorded. Neurological outcome was assessed by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Barthel Index and the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale.
APOEε4 and non-APOEε4 allele frequencies were similar in aSAH patients and healthy individuals. The presence of APOEε4 was not associated with the development of early CVS. We could not find an influence of the APOE polymorphism on 1-year neurological outcome between groups. Subgroup analyses of patients treated with surgical clipping vs endovascular coiling did not reveal any associations.
For Csajbok et al. APOEε4 polymorphism has no major influence on risk of aSAH, the occurrence of CVS or long-term neurological outcome after aSAH 15).
For Cheng et al., Apolipoprotein E (APOEε4) may induce cerebral perfusion impairment in the early phase, contributing to early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), and assessment of APOE genotypes could serve as a useful tool in the prognostic evaluation and therapeutic management of aSAH 16).
Thirteen patients with SAH with ICH who underwent coil embolization were retrospectively analyzed. Modified Rankin Scale(mRS)scores were compared for postoperative clinical outcomes of different hematoma locations.
All ruptured aneurysms in the present series of patients were treated using endovascular surgery. Six patients underwent additional ventricle drainage. Only one patient underwent craniotomy for evacuation of the hematoma following coil embolization. Despite ten out of thirteen patients(76.9%)having a preoperative SAH clinical grade, as evaluated using the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grading system of IV or V, six(46.2%)patients had a favorable outcome(mRS=0-2).
Coil embolization for ruptured aneurysms, especially those located in the frontal lobe, with ICH and without cerebral herniation may be a feasible alternative and less invasive treatment 17).
Sasahara et al., performed plain computed tomography (CT) perfusion (CTP), and CT angiography (CTA) in all patients with aSAH on arrival. Aneurysms were surgically obliterated in patients with stable vital signs and the presence of a brain stem response. They measured the average mean transit time (aMTT) and compared it with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 1 month. Regions of interest were identified as 24 areas in the bilateral anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery territories and 2 areas in the basal ganglia.
A total of 57 patients were treated between 2007 and 2014. None of the 21 patients with aMTT >6.385 seconds achieved a favorable outcome, whereas 8 of the 36 patients with aMTT <6.385 seconds did achieve a favorable outcome (P = 0.015). Furthermore, comparing the number of areas showing a mean transit time (MTT) >7.0 seconds among the aforementioned 8 areas and mRS, favorable outcomes were not seen in 24 patients with more than 2 such areas (P = 0.009).
We cannot expect a favorable outcome for patients with WFNS grade V aSAH with aMTT >6.385 seconds or more than 2 of 8 areas with MTT >7.0 seconds 18).