Most cases begin during infancy; however, onset may be delayed until adolescence.
The prevalence of arachnoid cysts in children is 1-3%. They are more frequent in boys. They can be located intracranially or in the spine 1).
They are a rare condition thought to be congenital in nature.
They are often asymptomatic but can sometimes be symptomatic due to enlargement or hemorrhage.
Treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts remains controversial based on their variable presentation.
Treatment options include CSF shunting, endoscopic fenestration, or craniotomy and open fenestration for larger cysts.
Neuroendoscopic treatment has been recommended for patients who develop symptoms resulting from the cyst location.
Occasionally, hydrocephalus is associated due to a change in CSF circulatory dynamics.
Subdural hematomas, and-more rarely-intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic complications of arachnoid cysts have been reported, extensively presenting with subdural or intracystic hematoma after trauma, but presentation with extradural hemorrhage is very rare.
Brain parenchyma containing an arachnoid cyst is vulnerable to trauma and increases the risk of serious hemorrhagic complications. The abnormal shape of the head should be considered as an indication for a computerized tomography scan in cases of mild head injury 2).
A case of an 18-year-old female patient who suffered an ipsilateral hemorrhagic infarction after craniotomy for open fenestration of an arachnoid cyst 3).
It is important to be aware of these complications so that patients with arachnoid cysts are appropriately investigated when presenting with neurological symptoms 4).