Artificial intelligence by means of machine learning (ML) is entering the realm of medicine at an increasing pace and has been tested in a variety of clinical applications ranging from diagnosis to outcome prediction 4) 5).
Reliable intraoperative delineation of tumor from healthy brain tissue is essentially based on the neurosurgeon's visual aspect and tactile impression of the considered tissue, which is-due to inherent low brain consistency contrast-a challenging task. Development of an intelligent artificial intraoperative tactile perception will be a relevant task to improve the safety during surgery, especially when-as for neuroendoscopy-tactile perception will be damped or-as for surgical robotic applications-will not be a priori existent. Here, we present the enhancements and the evaluation of a tactile sensor based on the use of a piezoelectric tactile sensor.
METHODS: A robotic-driven piezoelectric bimorph sensor was excited using multisine to obtain the frequency response function of the contact between the sensor and fresh ex vivo porcine tissue probes. Based on load-depth, relaxation and creep response tests, viscoelastic parameters E1 and E2 for the elastic moduli and η for the viscosity coefficient have been obtained allowing tissue classification. Data analysis was performed by a multivariate cluster algorithm.
RESULTS: Cluster algorithm assigned five clusters for the assignment of white matter, basal ganglia and thalamus probes. Basal ganglia and white matter have been assigned to a common cluster, revealing a less discriminatory power for these tissue types, whereas thalamus was exclusively delineated; gray matter could even be separated in subclusters.
CONCLUSIONS: Bimorph-based, multisine-excited tactile sensors reveal a high sensitivity in ex vivo tissue-type differentiation. Although, the sensor principle has to be further evaluated, these data are promising 6).
The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree.
Deliberato et al. suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) could be utilized to facilitate the workflows of the data collection and assembly processes, as well as to support the development of personalized, yet data-driven assessments and plans 7).
Mathematically modeling are used in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, meteorology) and engineering disciplines (such as computer science, artificial intelligence), as well as in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology, political science).
What can the hypotheses of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that brains work like computers contribute to the question whether neurotransplantations are permissible or not. My attitude is primarily critical. I point out that the believe that we could exchange parts of the brain like parts of a computer is erroneous. Many mathematical functions are not absolute but only relative computable. The computation of the latter is only possible by using an oracle (a stock of knowledge), which has to be implemented in the computer respectively in the brain. Hence, one should know in advance, before a transplantation is performed, in which part of the brain the oracle is located. Otherwise we would not know whether the oracle will be damaged by a neurotransplantation, and, hence, whether the persons ability to think will be changed. Of course, this is only a presupposition, not the solution of the ethical question of the legitimacy of neurotransplantations 8).