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Bladder dysfunction

(also known as voiding dysfunction) affects a large number of women and men and can have a serious impact on one’s daily life.


Overactive bladder, incontinence, obstructions of the urinary tract, and urination difficulties due to neurological conditions or spinal cord injury.

An accurate assessment of the underlying causes of bladder dysfunction is key to alleviating its symptoms. We offer state-of-the-art diagnostic tests, including on-site video urodynamic evaluation. All video urodynamic studies are performed and interpreted by a urologist rather than a technician, increasing the accuracy of the testing and making for a more valuable study.

Lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is a common sequela of neurological disease, resulting in symptoms that have a pronounced effect on quality of life. The site and nature of the neurological lesion affect the pattern of dysfunction. The risk of developing upper urinary tract damage and renal failure is much lower in patients with slowly progressive non-traumatic neurological disorders than in those with spinal cord injury or spina bifida; this difference in morbidity is taken into account in the development of appropriate management algorithms. Clinical assessment might include tests such as uroflowmetry, post-void residual volume measurement, renal ultrasound, (video-)urodynamics, neurophysiology, and urethrocystoscopy, depending on the indication. Incomplete bladder emptying is most often managed by intermittent catheterisation, and storage dysfunction by antimuscarinic drugs. Intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA have transformed the management of neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Neuromodulation offers promise for managing both storage and voiding dysfunction. An individualised, patient-tailored approach is required for the management of LUT dysfunction associated with neurological disorders 1).


Xiao et al. and other investigators have studied an intradural somatic-to-autonomic (e.g., L-5 to S3-4) nerve transfer as a method to create a reflex arc to allow bladder emptying in response to cutaneous stimulation (the Xiao procedure). In previous clinical studies of patients with spinal dysraphism who underwent the Xiao procedure, high success rates (70%-85%) were reported for the establishment of a “skin-CNS-bladder” reflex arc that allows spontaneous, controlled voiding in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. However, many of these studies did not use blinded observers, did not have control groups, and/or featured only limited follow-up durations.

see Xiao procedure

Panicker JN, Fowler CJ, Kessler TM. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in the neurological patient: clinical assessment and management. Lancet Neurol. 2015 Jul;14(7):720-32. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00070-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 26067125.
bladder_dysfunction.txt · Last modified: 2016/08/04 08:28 (external edit)