Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons.
The advantage of an endovascular approach is that the coils promote the formation of thrombi in the aneurysm.
However, coil embolization is associated with a higher risk of recurrence than clip ligation.
With the increasing number of aneurysm recurrences after failed coiling procedures, the best retreatment strategy remains unknown.