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contact_sport

Contact sport

Contact sports are sports that emphasize or require physical contact between players. Some sports, such as mixed martial arts, are scored on impacting an opponent, while others, including rugby football, require tackling of players. These sports are often known as full-contact, as the sport cannot be undertaken without contact. Other sports have contact, but such events are illegal under the rules of the game or are accidental and do not form part of the sport.

The contact in contact sports can also include impact via a piece of sporting equipment, such as being struck by a hockey stick or football.

In contact sports, the cervical spine is most susceptible to injury when the mechanism involves substantial axial loading forces applied to the head while the neck is in flexion or extension 1).

If the force is great enough to compromise the integrity of the discovertebral complex or ligamentous elements, direct injury to the spinal cord may occur due to disc herniation (flexion), buckling of the ligamentum flavum posteriorly (extension), or shingling causing compression of the spinal cord between the vertebral body of the rostral level and the lamina of the caudal level (extension) 2) 3).

Acute neural element compression may be transient; however, studies with athletes involved in contact sports have shown a greater prevalence of preexisting chronic compressive pathology, such as congenital spinal stenosis, that may predispose them to this type of event 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13).


Sixteen young adult ice hockey players with a remote history of concussion but no subjective complaints were compared against 13 of their teammates with no history of concussion. Participants completed a detailed phenotypic assessment and a neuroimaging battery including diffusion kurtosis imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Athletes with a history of concussion performed no differently from those without on phenotypic assessment, but showed significantly elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left genu and anterior corona radiata relative to those without. Post hoc analyses revealed that elevated FA was associated with increased microstructural complexity perpendicular to the primary axon (radial kurtosis). Athletes with concussion history also showed significant differences in the organization of the default mode network (DMN) characterized by stronger temporal coherence in posterior DMN, decreased temporal coherence in anterior DMN, and increased functional connectivity outside the DMN. In the absence of deficits on detailed phenotypic assessment, athletes with a history of concussion displayed changes to the microstructural architecture of the cerebral white matter and to the functional connectivity of the brain at rest. Some of these changes are consistent with those previously associated with persisting deficits and complaints, but we also report novel, complementary changes that possibly represent compensatory mechanisms 14).

1) , 2)
Torg JS, Guille JT, Jaffe S. Injuries to the cervical spine in American football players. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A(1):112-122.
3) , 4)
Torg JS, Corcoran TA, Thibault LE, et al. Cervical cord neuropraxia: classification, pathomechanics, mobidity and management guidelines. J Neurosurg. 1997;87(6): 843-850.
5)
Ladd AL, Scranton PE. Congenital cervical stenosis presenting as transient quadriplegia in athletes. Report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68(9): 1371-1374.
6)
Torg J, Pavlov H, Genuario S, et al. Neurapraxia of the cervical spinal cord with transient quadriplegia. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68(9):1354-1370.
7)
Torg JS, Vegso JJ, O’Neill MJ, Sennett B. The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(1):50-57.
8)
MaroonJC,El-KadiH,AblaAA,etal.Cervicalneurapraxiaineliteathletes:evaluation and surgical treatment. Report of five cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;6(4):356-363.
9)
Torg JS, Naranja RJ Jr, Pavlov H, Galinat BJ, Warren R, Stine RA. The relationship of developmental narrowing of the cervical spinal canal to reversible and irreversible injury of the cervical spinal cord in football players. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996;78(9):1308-1314.
10)
Maroon JC, Bailes JE. Athletes with cervical spine injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21(19):2294-2299. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. The 2012 Annual Statistical Report for the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems. Birmingham, AL: 2012.
11)
Smith MG, Fulcher M, Shanklin J, Tillett ED. The prevalence of congenital cervical spinal stenosis in 262 college and high school football players. J Ky Med Assoc. 1993;91(7):273-275.
12)
Maroon JC, Healion T. Head and neck injuries in football. J Indiana State Med Assoc. 1970;63(9):995-999.
13)
Cantu RC. Guidelines for return to contact sports after transient quadriplegia. In: Safety in American Football Issue 1305. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 1996:53-59.
14)
Orr CA, Albaugh MD, Watts R, Garavan H, Andrews T, Nickerson JP, Gonyea J, Hipko S, Zweber C, Logan K, Hudziak JJ. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of a History of Concussion Observed in Asymptomatic Young Athletes. J Neurotrauma. 2016 May 1;33(9):803-10. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3721. Epub 2015 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 26413910.
contact_sport.txt · Last modified: 2016/05/05 20:14 (external edit)