Cytokines (Greek cyto-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling - they are released by cells and affect the behavior of other cells, and sometimes the releasing cell itself.
Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, tumor necrosis factor but generally not hormones or growth factors. Cytokines are produced by broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell.
Several factors account for the tumorigenicity of human gliomas, including cytokines and their receptors.
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that trigger the activation of caspase 1 and subsequently the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. These cytokines play a critical role in mediating inflammation and innate immunity response. Among various inflammasome complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome is the best characterized, which has been demonstrated as a crucial role in various diseases