EGYPTIAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY http://www.ejns.edu.eg/beta/
The 1st Annual International Congress of Neurosurgery, Department Ain Shams University (AINAS)
16 – 17 APRIL 2015 InterContinental Cairo City Stars Hotel– EGYPT
Vascular Workshop will be part of this year's program together with another one dealing with endoscopic spinal surgery.
Dr. Gihan Hammady YG Center General Manager email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel : 03 3802050 Mob.: 010020 85288 Personal Mob.: 0100 1117500
Ain Shams University
Suez Canal University
Consultants of Ministry of Health
Doctors Working Abroad
he Egyptian Society of Neurological Surgeons organizes a meeting every 3 months in one of the departments, at which clinical cases are presented. A summer meeting is organized by Alexandria University and convened in Alexandria. Every March, the annual meeting is convened in Cairo, with international figures being invited to participate.
International teaching courses are organized with the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies, European Association of Neurosurgical Societies, and International Society of Pediatric Neurosurgery and are attended by African and Arab neurosurgeons
Egyptian Society of Neurological Surgeons was founded In 1967, during a meeting at the Maadi Military Hospital. Prof. Boctor was appointed president, Dr. Sorour secretary, and Dr. Sayed El Gindi treasurer.
They were joined by 7 qualified neurosurgeons and 30 doctors in training. The number of neurosurgeons in the society is now more than 400. The Egyptian Society of Neurological Surgeons joined the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies in 1969, with Drs. Boctor and Sorour as delegates.
Egyptian neurosurgeons have participated in numerous international conferences. In 1993, Dr. El Gindi was elected as the second vice president of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies; in 1997, he became an honorary president. Dr. El Banhawy was one of the founding members of the neurotrauma committee.
ACTIVITIES IN AFRICAN AND ARAB COUNTRIES
The following are Egyptian names linked to the foundation of the joint Neurological Science Societies in African and Arab countries. Dr. Sorour was the president of the Pan African Association of Neuroscience. Dr. El Gindi was the chairman of the neurosurgical section of the Pan Arab Society of Neurological Sciences and their representative in the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. Several Egyptian neurosurgeons have been instrumental in establishing neurosurgical departments in Arab countries (especially Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), such as Drs. Mahdi, A.W. Ibrahim, and A. Ammar
Initially, the main focus of the society was to publish articles in the Journal of the Egyptian Medical Association; this was before the creation of the Journal of the Egyptian Society of Neurological Surgeons. The society also held annual meetings and organized training courses to train and update the neurosurgeons knowledge's To interact with international neurosurgical organization in the field of neurosurgery.
Hossam Mohammed Al- Husseiny Khaleel Professor of Neurosurgery, Ain Shams University President Elected
Prof. Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed Essa Professor of Neurosurgery, Cairo University General Secretary
Mostafa Mohammed Wageh Kotb Professor of Neurosurgery, Cairo University Treasurer
Prof. Youssef Barakat Professor of Neurosurgery Dept., Al-Azhar University
ESNS Internet Editor Prof. Dr. abdul-Wahab mahmoud Ibrahim
Prof. Abdul-Wahab Mahmoud Ibrahim Chairman, Neurosurgery Department Mansoura School of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura E-mail: email@example.com
Members of Board
Prof. Dr. Hussam El Husseni Prof. Dr. Alaa Fakhr Prof. Dr. Yahia Alhennawy Prof. Dr. Yousif Barakate Prof. Dr. Ahmed Salem Prof. Dr. Mostafa Mohi El-Den Prof. Dr. Mohammad Safwat Prof. Dr. Samy Tork Prof. Dr. Abdelhafeez Shihab Aldeen
Prof. Dr. Sayed ElGendi Prof. Dr. AbdelHamid ElShawarby Prof. Dr. Ismaeel Elshafaai Prof. Dr. Hassanen Elsherif Prof. Dr. Sayed ElKashash Prof. Dr. Gamal Azab Prof. Dr. Khairy ElSamra Prof. Dr. Ismaeel Ameen Prof. Dr. Mamdouh Salama Prof. Dr. AbdelReheem Galal Prof. Dr. Abdelhamid Zidan Prof. Dr. Saeed Abo Oof Prof. Dr. Sherif Ezzat Prof. Dr. Hassan Gawish Prof. Dr. Mohamed Lotfi Ibrahim Prof. Dr. Osama ELGhanam Prof. Dr. Alaa Abd Elhay Prof. Dr. Roshdy Abdel-Azeez Al-khayat Prof. Dr. Amr Mansi Prof. Dr. Adel El-Hakiem Prof. Dr. Abdul-Wahab Mahmoud Ibrahim Prof. Mohamed El-Fiki
Neurosurgery in Ancient Egypt
The rise of medicine in Egypt can be noted as early as the First Dynasty. Athotis, the second king of the First Dynasty, wrote one of the earliest works, Practical Medicine and Anatomic Book. The Edwin Smith papyrus, dating from the 17th century BC, was discovered in 1862 and is attributed to Imhotop.
The papyrus, dealing with cranial wounds and fractures, is the world's oldest known surgical treatise. It provided a description of the brain and noted correlations between cerebral lesions and loss of movement.
A case of hemiplegia caused by a compound comminuted cranial fracture was documented. Particular attention was paid to cranial base fractures associated with bleeding from the nose and ears. It was noted that fractures of the cervical spine were associated with limb paralysis, neck rigidity, and conjugate eye deviation. The treatment for hemiplegia was applied to one-half of the belly and not to all of the paralyzed side.
In the Ebers papyrus, 12 prescriptions for the treatment of headaches and migraines were presented. Migraine was called “half of the head” and was considered to be a special entity, thus requiring special treatment. Rogers presented two cases of intracranial meningiomas found in ancient Egyptian skulls.
Some ancient Egyptian surgical tools Right: Neurosurgical operation depicted in a drawing from an old Egyptian temple (1500 BC).
Modern Beginning of Neurosurgery in Egypt
The modern history of neurosurgery in Egypt owes much to its early pioneers; the most prominent were Dr. Ahmed Abu Zikry, Dr. Osman Sorour, Dr. Samuel Boctor, Major Dr. Ezzat Tewfik, Dr. Ibrahim Hegazy, and Dr. Ahmed El Banhawy. They played pivotal roles in the foundation of the modern neurosurgical service in Egypt. Having graduated from King Fouad University (now Cairo University) and finding no training facilities in Egypt, they traveled to the United States and Europe to attain proficiency in their chosen field. At that time, neurosurgery was not considered a promising career course, but they nevertheless chose to pursue it.
The first neurosurgical practice in Egypt was begun by Dr. Ahmed Abu Zikry, a general surgeon who studied neurosurgery at the Mayo Clinic for 2 months and the Lahey Clinic for 1 month in 1949. He then worked in the department of general surgery of Cairo University, under the chairmanship of Prof. Ibrahim Fahmy El Miniawy, and cooperated with Profs. Barrada and Guinena, who were the founders of the department of neurology of Cairo University. He had a successful career in general surgery; therefore, he chose to continue as a general surgeon and encouraged his resident, Dr. Osman Sorour, to specialize in neurosurgery.
Dr. Sorour received his master of surgery degree in general surgery from Fouad University and joined the general surgical staff of the medical faculty. He was assisted by Dr. Ismail Shafie (neurology house officer) in thoracic surgical wards. After separation of the service, Dr. Shafie became the first neurosurgical registrar, proceeding to eventually become chairman of the department in 1987.
Dr. Samuel Boctor treated patients in general surgical beds, assisted by Dr. Abdel Hamid El Shawarby (surgical resident), who later became a leader in psychosurgery. In 1956, Dr. Boctor established a neurosurgical department (the first in Egypt), with Dr. Gamal Azab as his registrar. This free service served the northern region of Egypt, with a population of more than 8 million Egyptians and a steady stream of Libyan patients from the eastern border.
Major Dr. Ezzat Tewfik joined the medical corps as a first lieutenant general surgeon, obtained his F.R.C.S. degree in the United Kingdom, and began neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom and Karolinska, Sweden, under the leadership of Dr. Herbert Olivecrona. After returning to Egypt, Major Tewfik practiced in the general surgical ward of the Kobba Military Hospital, mainly treating head injuries and performing a few spinal and brain operations.
Dr. Ibrahim Hegazy worked for the Ministry of Public Health after obtaining his F.R.C.S. degree in the United Kingdom. Dr. Hegazy joined the Ibrahim Pasha University (now Ain Shams University) and was assisted by Dr. Ahmed El Banhawy (M.S.).
Dr. El Banhawy graduated from Cairo University in 1952. After working as a registrar in general surgery, he joined the anatomy department. In addition to his master of surgery degree, he obtained a diploma in neurology and psychiatry. He underwent neurosurgical training in Germany and Oxford, England. In 1964, he assumed the chairmanship of the military neurosurgical department, after Major Ezzat Tewfik was involved in a disabling automobile accident. Dr. El Banhawy was the first Egyptian to document a case of spinal cord bilharzioma. He later became assistant professor at Ain Shams University. In the 1970s, he was appointed dean of the medical school and deputy chairman of the university, before his premature death.
These early pioneers struggled to establish neurosurgical departments, because neurosurgery was a division of the department of general surgery at that time. Furthermore, the general population was mistrustful of new specialties.
In the middle 1950s, Major Dr. Ezzat Tewfik was uniquely placed to engineer the founding of the military neurosurgical service. His international connections allowed him to establish a neurosurgical department with high standards in the Air Forces Hospital in 1960. After his retirement from the Karolinska Institute in 1961, Prof. Olivecrona traveled to Egypt, with a staff of neurologists, neuroanesthetists, neurophysiologists, neuroradiologists, and nurses, to set up training programs for the Egyptian military. These programs heralded a new era in neurosurgical technology in Egypt, allowing Egyptian doctors to meet European standards. Major Dr. Rushdy Diwan, who had been trained by Dr. Hjelm Quist, practiced modern neuroanesthesia, and intensive care units were introduced. Captain Dr. Fouad El Nadi, who had been trained by Dr. Sjogren, practiced the techniques of percutaneous carotid and vertebral artery angiography, air encephalography, air myelography, and functional stereotactic surgery. Dr. Kamal Kamel was trained in neuropathology by Prof. Zulch. He became the dean and later the rector of Mansoura University. Drs. El Shawarby, Azab, and Salama of the university hospitals and Drs. Abdel Rahim Galal, Sayed El Kashashy, and Mokhtar El Mahdy from the medical corps joined the institutions for various periods.
During this period, Dr. Sayed El Gindi studied for the F.R.C.S. degree in the United Kingdom and continued his training at Brook Hospital (London, England), the Radcliffe Infirmary (Oxford, England) (under Dr. J. Pennybaker), and Oldchurch Hospital (Essex, England) (under Dr. J. Andrew). After his return to Egypt in 1967, Dr. El Gindi worked in the department of neurosurgery of the new Maadi Military Hospital. At that time, a system of collaboration between the universities and the military department was developed. Young residents recruited for military service were attached to the Maadi Military Hospital for a period of 1 year, to continue their training. In addition to working in the military service, Dr. El Gindi was appointed a visiting professor at Mansoura University, to establish the department of neurosurgery. In 1968, he became the chairman of the department of neurosurgery of the Maadi Military Hospital.
In 1959, the Middle East Neurosurgical Society was founded. Dr. Sorour was one of the founding members and was the president for 2 consecutive years. Egyptian doctors joined this society as individuals. It was not until 1967 that the Egyptian Society of Neurological Surgeons was founded .
Egyptian neurosurgeons had the opportunity to gain wide experience in treating war injuries. The vast majority of experience in this field was achieved in the treatment of casualties of the 1973 war. Teams of neurosurgeons from military hospitals and university clinics, together with doctors of allied specialties, actively shared in treating these war casualties.
For more information, you can see the article for Al-Gindi al, 2002 1).