/ɛnˌsɛfəˈlɒpəθi/ means disorder or disease of the brain.
In modern usage, encephalopathy does not refer to a single disease, but rather to a syndrome of global brain dysfunction; this syndrome can have many different organic and inorganic causes.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
Infantile spasm syndrome is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy that occurs in children.