Epileptic seizures (colloquially a fit) are brief episodes of “abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain”.
The outward effect can vary from wild thrashing movement (tonic-clonic seizure) to as mild as a brief loss of awareness (absence seizure). The syndrome of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is termed epilepsy, but seizures can occur in people who do not have epilepsy. Additionally there are a number of conditions that look like seizures but are not.
After a first seizure, treatment is generally not needed unless specific problems are found on either electroencephalogram or imaging of the brain.
About 5–10% of all people will have an unprovoked seizure by the age of 80 and the chance of experiencing a second seizure is between 40% and 50%.
Epilepsy affects about 1% of the population currently and affects about 4% of the population at some point in time.
Most of affected, nearly 80%, live in developing countries.
Seizures may be manifestation of intracranial tumor (IT) and demand thorough neurological evaluation. Tumor histology does not seem to affect seizure predisposition. Most seizures associated with IT occur in fifth and sixth decades of life and affect frontal lobe most often 1).
Seizures are the most frequent and often the only manifestation in patients with brain tumors of glial origin, and medical treatment appears to be less effective for seizure control because of incomplete understanding of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Particularly, patients with slow-growing low-grade tumors (low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and glioneuronal tumors) in cortical areas of the temporal lobe are more frequently associated with seizures than high-grade tumors 2) 3) 4).
Clinically, tumor-related seizures manifest as simple or complex partial seizures with or without secondary generalization and, in more than 50% of cases, are pharmacoresistant. When uncontrolled, tumor-related epilepsy affects patients' quality of life, causes cognitive deterioration, and may result in significant morbidity 5) 6).
Seizures during status epilepticus (SE) cause neuronal death and induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
Seizures may cause diagnostic confusion and be a source of metabolic stress after Pediatric traumatic brain injury. The incidence of electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed seizures and of subclinical seizures in the pediatric population with TBI is not well known.
Besides antiepileptic drugs, antitumour treatment might contribute to a reduction in seizure frequency. Temozolomide may contribute to an important reduction in seizure frequency in patients with LGG. Seizure reduction following TMZ treatment has prognostic significance and may serve as an important clinical outcome measure in patients with LGG 7).