Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) external drainage devices are used to drain CSF and to monitor the flow of CSF from the ventricular system in order (1) to control intracranial pressure (ICP), (2) to evaluate CSF chemistry and cytology, and (3) to provide temporary egress for CSF in patients with infected or malfunctioning cerebrospinal fluid shunts.
The optimal setting for EVD placement in regards to safety and accuracy of placement is poorly defined.
External ventricular drains (EVD) are widely used to manage intracranial pressure (ICP) and hydrocephalus for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients. After days of use, a decision is made to remove the EVD or replace it with a shunt, involving EVD weaning and CT imaging to observe ventricular size and clinical status. This practice may lead to prolonged hospital stay, extra radiation exposure, and neurological insult due to ICP elevation.
The procedure is generally safe, but parenchymal sequelae are reported as a possible side effect, with variable incidence.
Complications arising from EVDs include hemorrhage, misplacement, dislodgement, blockage, and, most significantly, infection.
Patients were prospectively enrolled in the CLEAR III trial after placement of an EVD for obstructive intraventricular hemorrhage and randomized to receive recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator or placebo. We counted any detected new hemorrhage (catheter tract hemorrhage or any other distant hemorrhage) on computed tomography scan within 30 days from the randomization. Meta-analysis of published series of EVD placement was compiled with STATA software.
Growing or unstable hemorrhage was reported as a cause of exclusion from the trial in 74 of 5707 cases (1.3%) screened for CLEAR III. The first 250 patients enrolled have completed adjudication of adverse events. Forty-two subjects (16.8%) experienced ≥1 new bleeds or expansions, and 6 of 250 subjects (2.4%) suffered symptomatic hemorrhages. Eleven cases (4.4%) had culture-proven bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis.
Risks of bleeding and infection in the ongoing CLEAR III trial are comparable to those previously reported in EVD case series. In the present study, rates of new bleeds and bacterial meningitis/ventriculitis are very low despite multiple daily injections, blood in the ventricles, the use of thrombolysis in half the cases, and generalization to >60 trial sites 1).
In 155 patients Ortolano et al. studied the brain tissue surrounding the EVD by CT scan (all patients) and MRI (16 patients); 53 patients were studied at three time points (day 1-2, day 3-10, >10 days after EVD placement) to document the lesion time course. Small hemorrhages, with a hyperdense core surrounded by a hypodense area, were identified by CT scan in 33 patients. The initial average (hyper- + hypodense) lesion volume was 8.16 ml, increasing up to 15 ml by >10 days after EVD insertion. These lesions were not accompanied by neurologic deterioration or ICP elevation. History of arterial hypertension, coagulation abnormalities and multiple EVD insertions were significantly associated with hemorrhages. In 122 non-hemorrhagic patients, they detected very small hypodense areas (average volume 0.38 ml) surrounding the catheter. At later times these hypodensities slightly increased. MRI studies in 16 patients identified both intra- and extracellular edema around the catheters. The extracellular component increased with time.
Arroyo-Palacios et al performed a retrospective study with 50 aSAH patients with reported weaning trial admitted to our institution between 03/2013 and 08/2014. By reviewing clinical notes and pre/post-brain imaging results, 32 patients were determined as having passed the weaning trial and 18 patients as having failed the trial. MOCAIP algorithm was applied to ICP signals to form a series of artifact-free dominant pulses. Finally, pulses with similar mean ICP were identified, and amplitude, Euclidean, and geodesic inter-pulse distances were calculated in a 4-h moving window.
While the traditional measure of mean ICP failed to differentiate the two groups of patients, the proposed amplitude and morphological inter-pulse measures presented significant differences (p ≤ 0.004). Moreover, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed their usability to predict the outcome of the EVD weaning trial (AUC 0.85, p < 0.001).
Patients with an impaired CSF system showed a larger mean and variability of inter-pulse distances, indicating frequent changes on the morphology of pulses. This technique may provide a method to rapidly determine if patients will need placement of a shunt or can simply have the EVD removed 3).