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growth_hormone

Growth hormone (GH)

Acromegaly is characterized by GH and IGF-1 hypersecretion, and GH and IGF-1 play important roles in regulating body composition and glucose homeostasis.

Growth hormone (GH), which has been extracted from the pituitary gland since early times, has become easily available by the advance of genetic engineering.

see Growth hormone deficiency.

Its clinical application to treatment in various fields, involving obesity, wounds, fractures, gastric ulcers and so on, is being increasingly discussed. The presence or absence of the effect of GH on leukopoiesis was studied in vivo and in vitro experiments. In the in vivo experiment, GH was administered to rats whose bone marrow production had been suppressed by the injection of mitomycin C, and time-course changes in the peripheral blood leukocyte count in these rats were compared with those in rats given physiological saline solution alone (control group). The in vitro experiment was performed by colony assay of mouse marrow cells. Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was also studied in the in vitro experiment. The in vivo experiment revealed that GH promoted recovery of leukocytes from the nadir, and in the in vitro experiments GH and IGF-1 were demonstrated to increase the number of colonies in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GH was considered to exert effects on myeloid progenitor cells and the hemopoietic microenvironment simultaneously, resulting in an increase in leukocytes 1).

Excessive growth hormone (GH) is usually secreted by GH secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults.

The growth hormone test may be used to monitor response to acromegaly treatment.

Different tests are used to diagnose growth problems:

GHRH or GHRH-arginine stimulation (to help diagnose a lack of growth hormone)

Growth hormone stimulation test

IGF-1 levels

Oral glucose tolerance suppression (to help diagnose too much growth hormone)

Normal Results

The normal range for growth hormone levels is typically:

1 - 9 ng/mL (male)

1 - 16 ng/mL (female)

GH is released in pulses. A higher level may be normal if the blood was drawn during a pulse. A lower level may be normal if the blood was drawn around the end of a pulse.

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.


Co-secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from a single pituitary adenoma is common. In fact, up to 25% of patients with acromegaly may have PRL co-secretion. The prevalence of acromegaly among patients with a newly diagnosed prolactinoma is unknown. Given the possibility of mixed GH and PRL co-secretion, the current recommendation is to obtain an insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in patients with prolactinoma at the initial diagnosis. Long-term follow-up of IGF-1 is not routinely done 2).

Growth-hormone staining pituitary adenoma

Is a popular disease of the central nervous system. We noticed some patients have accompanying cystic disorders. Several cases of concomitant growth-hormone (GH)-staining pituitary adenoma and other cystic changes have been reported but with no further investigation. We report a case of adult growth-hormone staining pituitary adenoma with accompanying polycystic changes of multiple systems, as well as hypertension and nephrolithiasis. Preoperative clinical assessment revealed intrasellar tumor, multinodular thyroid disorder, renal cysts, and hepatic cysts, with increased serum growth-hormone level and normal thyroid hormone level. The total tumor resection was performed via endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. The pathologic analysis reported growth-hormone staining pituitary adenoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. The endocrine testing was normal soon after the operation and the patient remained well for a follow-up period of eight months. This is the fifth report about simultaneous growth-hormone staining pituitary adenoma and polycystic changes of the kidneys and the liver. With review of the literature we speculate that the abnormal growth hormone secretion of the pituitary adenoma may arouse sequential cystic changes of multiple systems through some IGF-I involved pathways 3).

Craniopharyngioma

A significant number of patients with craniopharyngioma are GH deficient. The safety of GH replacement in these subjects has not been established.

1)
Miyashita Y. [The effect of growth hormone on leukopoiesis: in vivo and in vitro studies]. Nihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 1991 Jul 20;67(7):785-95. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 1889515.
2)
Manuylova E, Calvi LM, Hastings C, Vates GE, Johnson MD, Cave WT Jr, Shafiq I. Late presentation of acromegaly in medically controlled prolactinoma patients. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2016;2016. pii: 16-0069. PubMed PMID: 27855229.
3)
Ma J, Liu P. A case of growth-hormone staining pituitary adenoma with renal cyst and hepatic cyst: are they related manifestations of a single disease? Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014 Jul 20;35(4). [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25038593.
growth_hormone.txt · Last modified: 2018/01/01 18:08 by administrador