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Inferior colliculus

The inferior colliculus (IC) (Latin, lower hill) is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex.


The inferior colliculus has three subdivisions: the central nucleus, a dorsal cortex by which it is surrounded, and an external cortex which is located laterally.

Its bimodal neurons are implied in auditory-somatosensory interaction, receiving projections from somatosensory nuclei. This multisensory integration may underlie a filtering of self-effected sounds from vocalization, chewing, or respiration activities.

The inferior colliculi together with the superior colliculi form the eminences of the quadrigeminal body, and also part of the tectal region of the midbrain. The inferior colliculus lies caudal to its counterpart - the superior colliculus - above the trochlear nerve, and at the base of the projection of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus.

In the paramedian infratentorial supracerebellar approach, both the superior and inferior colliculi can be exposed and the arteries can be followed forward into the ipsilateral ambient cistern.

Bv: Basal vein of Rosenthal; IC: inferior colliculus; ICv: internal cerebral vein; PCv: Precentral cerebellar vein; Pg: pineal gland; SC: superior colliculus; SVv: superior vermian vein; V: vermis; Va: Vermian branches of SCA.

Auditory brainstem implantation at the cochlear nuclei used mainly for neurofibromatosis type 2 patients with bilateral loss of the cochlear nerves has more recently been extended to the inferior colliculus.

Both the translabyrinthine and retrosigmoid routes provide sufficient exposure for concurrent tumor removal and implantation at either the cochlear nuclei or inferior colliculus. The position of the inferior colliculus in the auditory pathways and its accessibility in the infratentorial supracerebellar exposure directed through either the translabyrinthine or retrosigmoid approach makes it an alternative site for electrode placement if the cochlear nuclei are not functionally or structurally suitable for implantation. Endoscopic assistance may aid the exposure and electrode placement at either site.

The translabyrinthine or retrosigmoid approaches provide access to the cochlear nuclei for implantation and also to the inferior colliculus through the translabyrinthine or retrosigmoid infratentorial supracerebellar route. The endoscope may aid in exposing either site 1).

The combined endoscope assisted translabyrinthine subtemporal keyhole approach can expose the internal auditory canal, cerebellopontine, and inferior colliculus satisfactorily in the same surgical setting.

As a minimally invasive approach, this can be considered an effective method for removal of vestibular schwannoma and auditory midbrain implantation in the same surgical setting, while avoiding retraction of the cerebellum and serious adverse events and complications.


A periodic sound, such as a pure tone, evokes both transient onset field-potential responses and sustained frequency-following responses (FFRs) in the auditory midbrain, the inferior colliculus (IC). It is not clear whether the two types of responses are based on the same or different neural substrates. Although it has been assumed that FFRs are based on phase locking to the periodic sound, the evidence showing the direct relationship between the FFR amplitude and the phase-locking strength is still lacking. Using intracranial recordings from the rat central nucleus of inferior colliculus (ICC), this study was to examine whether FFRs and onset responses are different in sensitivity to pure-tone frequency and/or response-stimulus correlation, when a tone stimulus is presented either monaurally or binaurally. Particularly, this study was to examine whether the FFR amplitude is correlated with the strength of phase locking. The results showed that with the increase of tone-stimulus frequency from 1 to 2 kHz, the FFR amplitude decreased but the onset-response amplitude increased. Moreover, the FFR amplitude, but not the onset-response amplitude, was significantly correlated with the phase coherence between tone-evoked potentials and the tone stimulus. Finally, the FFR amplitude was negatively correlated with the onset-response amplitude. These results indicate that periodic-sound-evoked FFRs are based on phase-locking activities of sustained-response neurons, but onset responses are based on transient activities of onset-response neurons, suggesting that FFRs and onset responses are associated with different functions 2).

Komune N, Yagmurlu K, Matsuo S, Miki K, Abe H, Rhoton AL Jr. Auditory Brainstem Implantation: Anatomy and Approaches. Neurosurgery. 2015 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25793729.
Wang Q, Li L. Differences between auditory frequency-following responses and onset responses: Intracranial evidence from rat inferior colliculus. Hear Res. 2017 Nov 7;357:25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2017.10.014. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29156225.
inferior_colliculus.txt · Last modified: 2017/11/21 14:13 by administrador