Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is a procedure that uses neurophysiological techniques in order to evaluate the motor and sensitive systems during surgeries that endanger the nervous system.
A meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the studies.
Eighteen recommendations were issued and will support the adequate use of the IONM 1).
It has become an integral part of vestibular schwannoma surgery.
During the last 20 years several less-invasive anterior approaches to the lumbar spine have become standard, including the extreme lateral transpsoas approach. Although it is associated with a lower risk of vascular injury compared with anterior midline approaches, neuromonitoring is considered mandatory to avoid neurologic complications.