Paul et al. presented in 2005 a new approach referred to as augmented virtuality (AV) for displaying intraoperative views of the operative field over three-dimensional (3-D) multimodal preoperative images onto an external screen during surgery. A calibrated stereovision system was set up between the surgical microscope and the binocular tubes. Three-dimensional surface meshes of the operative field were then generated using stereopsis. These reconstructed 3-D surface meshes were directly displayed without any additional geometrical transform over preoperative images of the patient in the physical space. Performance evaluation was achieved using a physical skull phantom. Accuracy of the reconstruction method itself was shown to be within 1 mm (median: 0.76 mm +/- 0.27), whereas accuracy of the overall approach was shown to be within 3 mm (median: 2.29 mm +/- 0.59), including the image-to-physical space registration error.
Paul et al. report the results of six surgical cases where AV was used in conjunction with augmented reality. AV not only enabled vision beyond the cortical surface but also gave an overview of the surgical area. This approach facilitated understanding of the spatial relationship between the operative field and the preoperative multimodal 3-D images of the patient 1).
A surface registration method is presented by Fan et al. to align intraoperative stereovision (iSV) with preoperative magnetic resonance (pMR) images, which utilizes both geometry and texture information to extract tissue displacements as part of the overall process of compensating for intraoperative brain deformation in order to maintain accurate neuronavigational image guidance during surgery.
A sum-of-squared-difference rigid image registration was first executed to detect lateral shift of the cortical surface and was followed by a mutual-information-based block matching method to detect local nonrigid deformation caused by distention or collapse of the cortical surface. Ten (N = 10) surgical cases were evaluated in which an independent point measurement of a dominant cortical surface feature location was recorded with a tracked stylus in each case and compared to its surface-registered counterpart. The full three-dimensional (3D) displacement field was also extracted to drive a biomechanical brain deformation model, the results of which were reconciled with the reconstructed iSV surface as another form of evaluation.
Differences between the tracked stylus coordinates of cortical surface features and their surface-registered locations were 1.94 ± 0.59 mm on average across the ten cases. When the complete displacement map derived from surface registration was utilized, the resulting images generated from mechanical model updates were consistent in terms of both geometry (1-2 mm of model misfit) and texture, and were generated with less than 10 min of computational time. Analysis of the surface-registered 3D displacements indicate that the magnitude of motion ranged from 4.03 to 9.79 mm in the ten patient cases, and the amount of lateral shift was not related statistically to the direction of gravity (p = 0.73 ≫ 0.05) or the craniotomy size (p = 0.48 ≫ 0.05) at the beginning of surgery.
The iSV-pMR surface registration method utilizes texture and geometry information to extract both global lateral shift and local nonrigid movement of the cortical surface in 3D. The results suggest small differences exist in surface-registered locations when compared to positions measured independently with a coregistered stylus and when the full iSV surface was aligned with model-updated MR. The effectiveness and efficiency of the registration method is also minimally disruptive to surgical workflow 2).
Estimating cortical surface shift efficiently and accurately is critical to compensate for brain deformation in the operating room (OR). In a study, Ji et al. present an automatic and robust registration technique based on optical flow (OF) motion tracking to compensate for cortical surface displacement throughout surgery. Stereo images of the cortical surface were acquired at multiple time points after dural opening to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) texture intensity-encoded cortical surfaces. A local coordinate system was established with its z-axis parallel to the average surface normal direction of the reconstructed cortical surface immediately after dural opening in order to produce two-dimensional (2D) projection images. A dense displacement field between the two projection images was determined directly from OF motion tracking without the need for feature identification or tracking. The starting and end points of the displacement vectors on the two cortical surfaces were then obtained following spatial mapping inversion to produce the full 3D displacement of the exposed cortical surface. We evaluated the technique with images obtained from digital phantoms and 18 surgical cases - 10 of which involved independent measurements of feature locations acquired with a tracked stylus for accuracy comparisons, and 8 others of which 4 involved stereo image acquisitions at three or more time points during surgery to illustrate utility throughout a procedure. Results from the digital phantom images were very accurate (0.05 pixels). In the 10 surgical cases with independently digitized point locations, the average agreement between feature coordinates derived from the cortical surface reconstructions was 1.7-2.1mm relative to those determined with the tracked stylus probe. The agreement in feature displacement tracking was also comparable to tracked probe data (difference in displacement magnitude was <1mm on average). The average magnitude of cortical surface displacement was 7.9 ± 5.7 mm (range 0.3-24.4 mm) in all patient cases with the displacement components along gravity being 5.2 ± 6.0 mm relative to the lateral movement of 2.4 ± 1.6 mm. Thus, our technique appears to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficiency (typically ∼15 s), for applications in the OR 3).
One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient's preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1 Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (∼1 h) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square errors (surface-to-surface distance) in the 0.28-0.81 mm range on the phantom object and in the 0.54-1.35 mm range on 4 clinical cases. The digitization accuracy of the presented stereovision methods indicate that the operating microscope can be used to deliver the persistent intraoperative input required by computational biomechanical models to update the patient's preoperative images and facilitate active surgical guidance 4)
Mohammadi et al. presented a new combination of surface imaging and Doppler US images proposed to calculate the displacements of cortical surface and deformation of internal vessels in order to estimate the targeted brain shift using a Finite Element Model (FEM). Registration error in each step and the overall performance of the method are evaluated.
The preoperative steps include constructing a FEM from MR images and extracting vascular tree from MR Angiography (MRA). As the first intraoperative step, after the craniotomy and with the dura opened, a designed checkerboard pattern is projected on the cortex surface and projected landmarks are scanned and captured by a stereo camera (Int J Imaging Syst Technol 23(4):294-303, 2013. doi: 10.1002/ima.22064 ). This 3D point cloud should be registered to boundary nodes of FEM in the region of interest. For this purpose, we developed a new non-rigid registration method, called finite element drift that is more compatible with the underlying nature of deformed object. The presented algorithm outperforms other methods such as coherent point drift when the deformation is local or non-coherent. After registration, the acquired displacement vectors are used as boundary conditions for FE model. As the second step, by tracking a 2D Doppler ultrasound probe swept on the parenchyma, a 3D image of deformed vascular tree is constructed. Elastic registration of this vascular point cloud to the corresponding preoperative data results the second series of displacement vector applicable to closest internal nodes of FEM. After running FE analysis, the displacement of all nodes is calculated. The brain shift is then estimated as displacement of nodes in boundary of a deep target, e.g., a tumor. We used intraoperative MR (iMR) images as the references for measuring the performance of the brain shift estimator. In the present study, two set of tests were performed using: (a) a deformable brain phantom with surface data and (b) an alive brain of an approximately big dog with surface data and US Doppler images. In our designed phantom, small tubes connected to an inflatable balloon were considered as displaceable targets and in the animal model, the target was modeled by a cyst which was created by an injection.
In the phantom study, the registration error for the surface points before FE analysis and for the target points after running FE model were <0.76 and 1.4 mm, respectively. In a real condition of operating room for animal model, the registration error was about 1 mm for the surface, 1.9 mm for the vascular tree and 1.55 mm for the target points.
The proposed projected surface imaging in conjunction with the Doppler US data combined in a powerful biomechanical model can result an acceptable performance in calculation of deformation during surgical navigation. However, the projected landmark method is sensitive to ambient light and surface conditions and the Doppler ultrasound suffers from noise and 3D image construction problems, the combination of these two methods applied on a FEM has an eligible performance 5).
In a study Ji et al. evaluated the feasibility of using intraoperative stereovision (iSV) for accurate, efficient, and robust patient registration in an open spinal fusion surgery. Geometrical surfaces of exposed vertebrae were first reconstructed from iSV. A classical multistart registration was then executed between point clouds generated from iSV and preoperative computed tomography images of the spine. With two pairs of feature points manually identified to facilitate the registration, an average registration accuracy of 1.43 mm in terms of surface-to-surface distance error was achieved in eight patient cases using a single iSV image pair sampling 2-3 vertebral segments. The iSV registration error was consistently smaller than the conventional landmark approach for every case (average of 2.02 mm with the same error metric). The large capture ranges (average of 23.8 mm in translation and 46.0° in rotation) found in the iSV patient registration suggest the technique may offer sufficient robustness for practical application in the operating room. Although some manual effort was still necessary, the manually-derived inputs for iSV registration only needed to be approximate as opposed to be precise and accurate for the manual efforts required in landmark registration. The total computational cost of the iSV registration was 1.5 min on average, significantly less than the typical ∼30 min required for the landmark approach. These findings support the clinical feasibility of iSV to offer accurate, efficient, and robust patient registration in open spinal surgery, and therefore, its potential to further increase the adoption of image guidance in this surgical specialty 6).
In a study, Fan et al. generated updated MR images (uMR) in the operating room (OR) to compensate for brain shift due to dural opening, and evaluated the accuracy and computational efficiency of the process.
In 20 open cranial neurosurgical cases, a pair of intraoperative stereovision (iSV) images was acquired after dural opening to reconstruct a 3D profile of the exposed cortical surface. The iSV surface was registered with pMR to detect cortical displacements that were assimilated by a biomechanical model to estimate whole-brain nonrigid deformation and produce uMR in the OR. The uMR views were displayed on a commercial navigation system and compared side by side with the corresponding coregistered pMR. A tracked stylus was used to acquire coordinate locations of features on the cortical surface that served as independent positions for calculating target registration errors (TREs) for the coregistered uMR and pMR image volumes. RESULTS The uMR views were visually more accurate and well aligned with the iSV surface in terms of both geometry and texture compared with pMR where misalignment was evident. The average misfit between model estimates and measured displacements was 1.80 ± 0.35 mm, compared with the average initial misfit of 7.10 ± 2.78 mm between iSV and pMR, and the average TRE was 1.60 ± 0.43 mm across the 20 patients in the uMR image volume, compared with 7.31 ± 2.82 mm on average in the pMR cases. The iSV also proved to be accurate with an average error of 1.20 ± 0.37 mm. The overall computational time required to generate the uMR views was 7-8 minutes.
This study compensated for brain deformation caused by intraoperative dural opening using computational model-based assimilation of iSV cortical surface displacements. The uMR proved to be more accurate in terms of model-data misfit and TRE in the 20 patient cases evaluated relative to pMR. The computational time was acceptable (7-8 minutes) and the process caused minimal interruption of surgical workflow 7).