It is the most severe form of stroke.
One hundred thirty-nine (51.3 %) patients with intraventricular hemorrhage developed ventricular dilatation, but only 47 patients (17.34 %) needed shunting. In seven cases, temporary neurosurgical procedures were performed, but in all of them, this was followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. The infection rate was 4.25 %, and shunt obstruction rate was 4.25 %. More than 80 % of patients were classified as good or excellent functional state. Mean follow-up period was 38.75 months (SD, 27.09; range, 1-102 months).
While intraventricular haemorrhage is frequently found in association with intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage, isolated intraventricular haemorrhage (iIVH) is rare in adults and seldom described. Awareness of possible causes is important in order to guide patient management. After elimination of a traumatic cause, numerous aetiologies remain possible. The most frequently found underlying lesions are arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms, but other vascular causes should also be sought, including cavernous malformations and moyamoya disease. Arterial hypertension, anticoagulant use, coagulopathies and certain toxic substances are also associated with iIVH. Finally, iIVH may be caused by intraventricular tumours. In a high number of cases, the cause remains unknown. Vascular and non-vascular causes should be searched through an imaging work-up (with CT angiography, MRI and catheter angiography when necessary) and correlation with clinical information to yield a diagnosis 1).
Obstructive hydrocephalus is a relatively common complication of intraventricular hemorrhage resulting in high morbidity and mortality.
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of premature neonates with small birth weight, which often leads to hydrocephalus and treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting procedures.
Two cases of transient obstructive hydrocephalus caused by obstruction of mesencephalic duct in patients that presented with altered consciousness which resolved spontaneously in a few hours. In very rare cases, obstructive hydrocephalus due to intraventricular hemorrhage may be transient and does not need neurosurgical or invasive procedures for lowering raised intracranial pressure, which otherwise are currently preferred treatment options 2).