One hundred thirty-nine (51.3 %) patients with intraventricular hemorrhage developed ventricular dilatation, but only 47 patients (17.34 %) needed shunting. In seven cases, temporary neurosurgical procedures were performed, but in all of them, this was followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. The infection rate was 4.25 %, and shunt obstruction rate was 4.25 %. More than 80 % of patients were classified as good or excellent functional state. Mean follow-up period was 38.75 months (SD, 27.09; range, 1-102 months).
While intraventricular haemorrhage is frequently found in association with intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage, isolated intraventricular haemorrhage (iIVH) is rare in adults and seldom described. Awareness of possible causes is important in order to guide patient management. After elimination of a traumatic cause, numerous aetiologies remain possible. The most frequently found underlying lesions are arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms, but other vascular causes should also be sought, including cavernous malformations and moyamoya disease. Arterial hypertension, anticoagulant use, coagulopathies and certain toxic substances are also associated with iIVH. Finally, iIVH may be caused by intraventricular tumours. In a high number of cases, the cause remains unknown. Vascular and non-vascular causes should be searched through an imaging work-up (with CT angiography, MRI and catheter angiography when necessary) and correlation with clinical information to yield a diagnosis 1).
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of premature neonates with small birth weight, which often leads to hydrocephalus and treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting procedures. see Intraventricular hemorrhage in the newborn
Clinically, monitoring is performed using 2D ultrasound (US); however, its clinical utility in dilation is limited because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as those of the ventricles, and this might delay treatment until the patient's condition deteriorates severely.
Kishimoto et al developed a 3-D US system to image the lateral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators. They describe an in vivo ventricle volume validation study in two parts: (i) comparisons between ventricle volumes derived from 3-D US and magnetic resonance images obtained within 24 h; and (ii) the difference between 3-D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions (ventricle taps), which remove cerebral spinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging ventricle volumes were found to be 13% greater than 3-D US ventricle volumes; however, they observed high correlations (R(2) = 0.99) when comparing the two modalities. Differences in ventricle volume pre- and post-intervention compared with the reported volume of cerebrospinal fluid removed also were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.93); the slope was not found to be statistically significantly different from 1 (p < 0.05), and the y-intercept was not found to be statistically different from 0 (p < 0.05). Comparison between 3-D US images can detect the volume change after neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. This could be used to determine which patients will have progressive ventricle dilation and allow for more timely surgical interventions. However, 3-D US ventricle volumes should not be directly compared with magnetic resonance imaging ventricle volumes 2)