Awake craniotomy pursues a balance between extensive tumor resection and preservation of postoperative language function. A dilemma exists in patients whose tumor resection is restricted due to signs of language dysfunction observed during awake craniotomy.
Language disorders, language impairments or language dysfunctions are disorders that involve the processing of linguistic information. Problems that may be experienced can involve grammar (syntax and/or morphology), semantics (meaning), or other aspects of language. These problems may be receptive (involving impaired language comprehension), expressive (involving language production), or a combination of both. Examples include specific language impairment and aphasia, among others. Language disorders can affect both spoken and written language, and can also affect sign language; typically, all forms of language will be impaired.
Note that these are distinct from speech disorders, which involve difficulty with the act of speech production, but not with language. Psychopathology of language
A special class of language disorders is studied by the psychopathology of language. Its topics of interest range from simple speech error to dream speech and schizophasia.
Auditory Processing Disorder
Semantic pragmatic disorder
Specific language impairment
Speech and language pathology in school settings
Balancing the benefit of extensive tumor resection with the consequence of potential postoperative language deficits remains a challenge in glioma surgery involving language areas.
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) and functional neuronavigation may help maximize tumor resection, minimize language deficits in patients with gliomas involving language areas, and improve survival time for patients with glioblastomas 1).