The midbrain or mesencephalon (from the Greek mesos, middle, and enkephalos, brain is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
The midbrain comprises the tectum (or corpora quadrigemina), tegmentum, the cerebral aqueduct (or ventricular mesocoelia or “iter”), and the cerebral peduncles, as well as several nuclei and fasciculi. Caudally the midbrain adjoins the metencephalon (afterbrain) (pons and cerebellum) while rostrally it adjoins the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, etc.). The midbrain is located below the cerebral cortex, and above the hindbrain placing it near the center of the brain.
Specifically, the midbrain consists of: