Among them, those located at its so-called M1 segment (from its origin up to the bifurcation) range between 2% and 7% of all the aneurysms.
Most MCA aneurysms have been found at the division of the M1-M2 junction due to hemodynamic stress or congenital factors 2).
The majority of distal MCA aneurysms are located at the M2 or M3 segments 6).
Although several classifications have been proposed for the MCA aneurysms, classically they are divided into four groups: proximal, bifurcation, distal, and cortical aneurysms
While most aneurysms that originate at the MCA bifurcation or trifurcation have a saccular geometry, some MCA aneurysms may exhibit a fusiform morphology and incorporate not only the proximal MCA trunk but also major MCA branches. In contrast to saccular aneurysms, fusiform aneurysms represent a distinct subset of intracranial aneurysms with unique underlying pathological features, hemodynamic forces, anatomical distribution, as well as natural history that governs their treatment. 7)
Middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm or Bifurcation-type middle cerebral artery aneurysm.
see also Distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm.
Classification of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms is sometimes difficult because the identification of the main MCA bifurcation, the key for accurate classification of MCA aneurysms, is inconsistent and somewhat subjective.
To use the meeting point of the M1 and M2 trunks as an objective, generally accepted, and angiographically evident hallmark for identification of MCA bifurcation and more accurate classification of MCA aneurysms.
Elsharkawy et al.reviewed the computed tomographic angiography data of 1009 consecutive patients with 1309 MCA aneurysms. The M2 trunks were followed proximally until their meeting with the M1 trunk at the main MCA bifurcation. The aneurysms were classified according to their relative location: proximal, at, or distal to the MCA bifurcation. The M1 aneurysms were further subgrouped into M1 early cortical branch aneurysms and M1 lenticulostriate artery aneurysms, extending the classic 3-group classification of MCA aneurysms into a 4-group classification. 8).
Angiographic data from patients with MCA aneurysms between 1995 and 2012 were used to construct 3-dimensional models. Models were then analyzed and compared objectively by assessing the relationship between the aneurysm sac, parent vessel, and branch vessels. Aneurysms were then grouped on the basis of the similarity of their shape patterns in such a way that the in-class similarities were maximized while the total number of categories was minimized. For each category, a proposed clip strategy was developed.
From the analysis of 61 MCA bifurcation aneurysms, 4 shape pattern categories were created that allowed the classification of 56 aneurysms (91.8%). The number of aneurysms allotted to each shape cluster was 10 (16.4%) in category 1, 24 (39.3%) in category 2, 7 (11.5%) in category 3, and 15 (24.6%) in category 4.
Through the use of anatomic visual cues, MCA bifurcation aneurysms can be grouped into a small number of shape patterns with an associated clip solution. Implementing these principles within current neurosurgery training paradigms can provide a tool that allows more efficient transition from novice to cerebrovascular expert 9).
Treatment of unruptured MCA aneurysms can be performed either endovascular or microsurgical, with a low risk of repair using both approaches.
The results of microsurgical treatment for middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (ANs) have been highly satisfying for decades, notoriously posing a challenge for interventional neuroradiologists. Following the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) study results, most centres across Europe and the USA switched to a “coil first” policy.
In the series of Dammann et al the risk for incomplete occlusion was higher for the endovascular approach 10).
Craniotomy for hematoma evacuation and aneurysm clipping is the treatment modality of choice for ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms with intracranial hematomas. Recent literature suggests that endovascular coil embolization followed by hematoma evacuation can be an acceptable alternative.
MCA aneurysm rupture with concomitant large intraparenchymal or sylvian fissure hematoma formation carries a grave prognosis. Simultaneous hematoma evacuation and aneurysm clipping with or without craniectomy can be an effective treatment modality 11).
A wide sylvian fissure opening, with either a proximal or distal start, has been standard for microsurgical management of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. However, extensive sylvian dissection is potentially associated with increased incidence of iatrogenic injury to the brain and neurovascular structures.
The focused sylvian opening is a less-invasive alternative to the classical wide sylvian opening for the microsurgical management of most MCA aneurysms 12).
There were no complications of temporal muscle atrophy, scar deformity, paresthesia, or pain around the scalp incision and frontalis palsy. This approach offers good surgical possibilities and little approach related morbidity in the clipping of incidental MCA aneurysms 13).
Eighteen intracranial aneurysms, including 13 unruptured and 5 ruptured aneurysms, were treated with LVIS Jr stent-assisted coil embolization.
A total of 18 stents were successfully delivered to the target aneurysms, and the technical success rate was 100%. There was complete occlusion in 8 (44.4%) of 18 cases, neck remnants in 7 (38.9%) cases, and partial occlusion in 3 (16.7%) cases. In-stent thrombosis occurred in 1 case, and the symptoms disappeared after transvenous tirofiban injection. The modified Rankin Scale score at discharge was 0 in 14 patients, 1 in 3 patients, and 2 in 1 patient.
The LVIS Jr stent provided excellent trackability and deliverability and is safe and effective for the treatment of wide-necked MCA aneurysms with tortuous and smaller parent vessels 14).
Lyon et al. report the presentation and successful endovascular treatment of a large, ruptured, middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm in a 5-week-old girl, one of only a few reported in the literature. Clinical and radiological findings at follow-up are also presented. The authors then review the literature on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in infants, with particular regard to outcome after either endovascular or open surgical management. They also provide recommendations for follow-up in pediatric patients whose intracranial aneurysms have been treated with coil embolization 15).
Sejkorová et al., analyzed a case of a ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm for which they acquired imaging data at three time points, including at rupture. A patient with an observed MCA aneurysm was admitted to the emergency department with clinical symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. During three-dimensional (3D) digital subtraction angiography (DSA), the aneurysm ruptured again. Imaging data from two visits before rupture and this 3D DSA images at the moment of rupture were acquired, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed. Results were used to describe the time-dependent changes of the hemodynamic variables associated with rupture. Time-dependent hemodynamic changes at the rupture location were characterized by decreased WSS and flow velocity magnitude. The impingement jet in the dome changed its position in time and the impingement area at follow-up moved near the rupture location. The results suggest that the increased WSS on the dome and increased low wall shear stress area (LSA) and decreased WSS on the daughter bleb with slower flow and slow vortex may be associated with rupture. CFD performed during the follow-up period may be part of diagnostic tools used to determine the risk of aneurysm rupture 16).
Ravindra et al., report the case of a previously healthy 6-month-old girl who presented with right arm and leg stiffening consistent with seizure activity. An initial CT scan of the head demonstrated acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns extending into the left sylvian fissure. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a 7 × 6 × 5-mm saccular aneurysm of the inferior M2 division of the left middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent left craniotomy and microsurgical clip ligation with wrapping of the aneurysm neck because the vessel appeared circumferentially dysplastic in the region of the aneurysm. Postoperative angiography demonstrated a small remnant, sluggish distal flow, but no significant cerebral vasospasm. Fifty-five days after the initial aneurysm rupture, the patient presented again with an acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the left anterior temporal lobe. Angiogram revealed a circumferentially dysplastic superior division of the M2 branch, with a new 5 × 4-mm saccular aneurysm distinct from the first, with 2 smaller aneurysms distal to the new ruptured aneurysm. Endovascular parent vessel occlusion with Onyx was performed. Genetic testing revealed a mutation of the MYH11. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of rapid de novo aneurysm formation in an infant with an MYH11 mutation. The authors review the patient's clinical presentation and management and comprehensively review the literature on this topic 17).
A 56-year-old woman with an unruptured, multi-lobulated MCA aneurysm, whom primarily refused surgery; therefore, she was scheduled for stent-assisted coiling. After successful deployment of the stent, it unfortunately then became snagged by the microcatheter and was pulled backwards. The subsequent surgical procedure (i.e. clipping of the MCA aneurysm) was challenging, due to the position of the dislodged stent. Such as misplacement of the stent is rarely documented: It resulted in the difficult handling of a MCA aneurysm. Aneurysms of the MCA should primarily be considered for surgical clipping. In conclusion, an increased risk for eventual surgery should be considered, in cases where endovascular treatments with stents are performed. 18).
A case of a huge intramural hematoma in a thrombosed middle cerebral artery aneurysm. A 47-year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia presented to the neurosurgical unit with a 5-day history of headache and cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the brain showed a thrombosed aneurysm located in the right middle cerebral artery with a posteriorly located huge intramural hematoma mimicking an intracerebral hematoma. Imaging studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography showed a partially thrombosed aneurysm at the origin of the right anterior temporal artery and an incidental aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. Both aneurysms were embolized by coiling. After embolization, the thrombosed aneurysmal sac and intramural hematoma had decreased in size 4 days later and almost completely disappeared 8 months later. This is the first reported case of a nondissecting, nonfusiform aneurysm with a huge intramural hematoma, unlike that of a dissecting aneurysm 19).