Since its revival in the early 1990s, neuroendoscopy has become an integral component of modern neurosurgery.
Neuroendoscopy is now considered to be a minimally invasive surgical approach for expanding lesions bulging into the ventricle, and it is also considered to be a relevant tool for performing biopsy procedures, fenestration of cystic walls, or for performing tumor removal in selected cases. Furthermore, the use of neuroimaging and the accurate follow-up of brain tumor patients have allowed the documentation of tumoral and pseudotumoral cystic areas that cause the obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways. Neuroendoscopic procedures enable the fenestration of cystic lesions, in addition to enabling third ventriculostomy or septostomy to restore CSF pathways.
The result of using neuroendoscopy is the reconstruction of CSF pathways that bypass the tumor occlusion. This surgical procedure is not only limited to the relief of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, but it is also useful for tumor removal or biopsies and the evacuation of cystic lesions. In patients affected by malignant tumors, neuroendoscopy can be performed to control intracranial hypertension before the patients start adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy 1).