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neuroimaging

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Neuroimaging

Significant advances in anatomical and functional neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain in action. The field of neuroimaging currently includes newer and faster scanners, improved image quality, higher spatial and temporal resolution and diverse methods of acquisition and analysis. Beyond simply imaging brain structures, these developments enable quantitative assessment of the microstructural and functional architecture, perfusion and metabolism of the brain. The resultant highly granular data have the potential to greatly improve characterization of neurological, neurosurgical and psychiatric disorders without invasive neurosurgery. However, the surge in neuroimaging data that can be collected over a relatively short acquisition period has led to a “big data” problem, where novel methods are needed to appropriately extract and analyze information and integrate data with other types of big data, such as genomic and proteomic data. Another challenge is the translation of these new technologies from basic science into clinical practice, so that they can be leveraged to improve patient outcomes and alleviate human disease. Critical to this endeavor is research comparing the effectiveness and outcomes of these advancements to allow widespread acceptance in the modern, economically constrained healthcare system 1).

see Imaging techniques

see Intraoperative imaging.

Books

Differential Diagnosis in Neuroimaging: Spine

Authored by renowned neuroradiologist Steven P. Meyers, Differential Diagnosis in Neuroimaging: Spine is a stellar guide for identifying and diagnosing cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacrum anomalies based on location and neuroimaging results. The succinct text reflects more than 25 years of hands-on experience gleaned from advanced training and educating residents and fellows in radiology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The high-quality MRI, CT, and X-ray images have been collected over Dr. Meyers's lengthy career, presenting an unsurpassed visual learning tool.

The distinctive 'three-column table plus images' format is easy to incorporate into clinical practice, setting this book apart from larger, disease-oriented radiologic tomes. This layout enables readers to quickly recognize and compare abnormalities based on high-resolution images.

Key Highlights

Tabular columns organized by anatomical abnormality include imaging findings and a summary of key clinical data that correlates to the images Congenital/developmental abnormalities, spinal deformities, and acquired pathologies in both children and adults Lesions organized by region including dural, intradural extramedullary, extra-dural, and sacrum More than 600 figures illustrate the radiological appearance of spinal tumors, lesions, deformities, and injuries Spinal cord imaging for the diagnosis of intradural intramedullary lesions and spinal trauma This visually rich resource is a must-have diagnostic tool for trainee and practicing radiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, physiatrists, and orthopaedic surgeons who specialize in treating spine-related conditions. The highly practical format makes it ideal for daily rounds, as well as a robust study guide for physicians preparing for board exams.

Product Details

Published on: 2016-12-14 Original language: English Dimensions: 8.50“ h x .0” w x 11.00“ l, Binding: Hardcover 288 pages


Differential Diagnosis in Neuroimaging: Brain and Meninges

Authored by renowned neuroradiologist Steven P. Meyers, Differential Diagnosis in Neuroimaging: Brain and Meninges is a stellar guide for identifying and diagnosing brain pathologies based on location and neuroimaging results. The succinct text reflects more than 25 years of hands-on experience gleaned from advanced training and educating residents and fellows in radiology, neurosurgery, and neurology. The high-quality MRI, CT, PET, PET/CT, conventional angiography, and X-ray images have been collected over Dr. Meyers's lengthy career, presenting an unsurpassed visual learning tool.

The distinctive 'three-column table plus images' format is easy to incorporate into clinical practice, setting this book apart from larger, disease-oriented radiologic tomes. The layout enables readers to quickly recognize and compare abnormalities based on high-resolution images.

Key Highlights

Tabular columns organized by anatomical abnormality include brain imaging findings and a summary of key clinical data that correlates to the images Comprehensive imaging of the brain, ventricles, meninges, and neurovascular system in both children and adults, including congenital/developmental anomalies and acquired disease More than 1,900 figures illustrate the radiological appearance of intracranial lesions, masses, neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia and infarction, and more This visually rich resource is a must-have diagnostic tool for radiologists, neurosurgeons, and neurologists, and residents and fellows. The highly practical format makes it ideal for daily rounds, as well as a robust study guide for physicians preparing for board exams.

Published on: 2016-11-09 Original language: English Dimensions: 8.50” h x .0“ w x 11.00” l, .0 pounds Binding: Hardcover 664 pages.

Indications

It is used to detect and localize lesions, define the target area for biopsies, plan surgical and radiation interventions and assess tumor progression and treatment outcome. In recent years the application of novel drugs including anti-angiogenic agents that affect the tumor vasculature, has drastically modulated the outcome of brain tumor imaging. To properly evaluate the effects of emerging experimental therapies and successfully support treatment decisions, neuroimaging will have to evolve. Multi-modal imaging systems with existing and new contrast agents, molecular tracers, technological advances and advanced data analysis can all contribute to the establishment of disease relevant biomarkers that will improve disease management and patient care 2).

Among the most recent significant developments in this respect are ultra high field MRI and the image post-processing technique known as track density imaging (TDI). It is these techniques (including super-resolution TDI)


Imaging is important in the evaluation of patients with degenerative disease and infectious processes. There are numerous conditions that can manifest as low back pain (LBP) or neck pain in a patient, and in many cases, the cause may be multifactorial. Clinical history and physical examination are key components in the evaluation of such patients; however, physical examination has variable sensitivity and specificity. Although studies have demonstrated that uncomplicated acute LBP and/or radiculopathy are self-limited conditions that do not warrant any imaging, neuroimaging can provide clear anatomic delineation of potential causes of the patient's clinical presentation. Various professional organizations have recommendations for imaging of LBP, which generally agree that an imaging study is not indicated for patients with uncomplicated LBP or radiculopathy without a red flag (eg, neurological deficit such as major weakness or numbness in lower extremities, bowel or bladder dysfunction, saddle anesthesia, fever, history of cancer, intravenous drug use, immunosuppression, trauma, or worsening symptoms). Different imaging modalities have a complementary role in the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the spine.


Neuroimaging is now entering a more mature era, whereby we can ask sophisticated questions concerning the biologic behavior of brain tumors. Multimodality imaging (CT, MRI, PET) offers the most precise information noninvasively on tumor type and grade, guides therapeutic choices, and assesses the effects of therapy. The incorporation of functional MRI (such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and perfusion-weighted imaging) has allowed neuro-oncologists a window of opportunity to assess the biologic behavior of brain neoplasms. These new multimodality approaches will be routinely used preoperatively, intraoperatively, and eventually, therapeutically 3) 4).

1)
Wintermark M, Colen R, Whitlow CT, Zaharchuk G. The vast potential and bright future of neuroimaging. Br J Radiol. 2018 Jul;91(1087):20170505. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20170505. Epub 2018 Jun 6. PubMed PMID: 29848016.
2)
Keunen O, Taxt T, Grüner R, Lund-Johansen M, Tonn JC, Pavlin T, Bjerkvig R, Niclou SP, Thorsen F. Multimodal imaging of gliomas in the context of evolving cellular and molecular therapies. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2014 Sep 30;76:98-115. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2014.07.010. Epub 2014 Jul 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 25078721.
3)
Mechtler L. Neuroimaging in neuro-oncology. Neurol Clin. 2009 Feb;27(1):171-201, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2008.09.015. Review. PubMed PMID: 19055979.
4)
Cha S. Neuroimaging in neuro-oncology. Neurotherapeutics. 2009 Jul;6(3):465-77. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2009.05.002. Review. PubMed PMID: 19560737.
neuroimaging.txt · Last modified: 2018/06/30 13:57 by administrador