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nimodipine

Nimodipine

(Nimotop® - brand discontinued in U.S.): a Calcium channel blocker with preferential CNS action. Blocks dihydropyridine-sensitive (L-type) calcium channels.

see also intraarterial nimodipine

Indications

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

Pregnancy

Nimodipine is potentially teratogenic in animals, the effect in humans is unknown. It should be used only when the potential benefit justifies the risk.

Subarachnoid haemorrhage in pregnancy is often the result of aneurysmal rupture or severe hypertension. A young woman with postpartum eclampsia and 'normal' blood pressure developed sudden-onset head pain, and was found to have minor biconvexity subarachnoid hemorrhages. Serial angiograms of the cervicocranial vessels revealed no evidence of aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. A follow-up angiogram revealed diffuse vessel narrowing, consistent with postpartum angiopathy. Treatment consisted only of nimodipine for the prevention of vasospasm. The patient made an excellent recovery, without residual neurological deficits 1).

Case reports

Al-Mufti et al. from the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, describe a case of medically refractory Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) that required treatment with intra-arterial (IA) verapamil and subsequent nimodipine, resulting in both angiographic and clinical improvement after failing to respond to hemodynamic augmentation.

They also supplement a description of the case with a review of other case studies and case series in which IA calcium channel blockers were used to treat RCVS. They propose that the case they outline demonstrates that neurointerventional management with IA verapamil is appropriate and effective as an early intervention of medically refractory RCVS.

Using PubMed and Google Scholar, they performed a search of the English language literature with several combinations of the keywords “intra-arterial”, “calcium channel blockers”, “reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome”, “RCVS”, “nimodipine”, “verapamil”, “milrinone”, and “nicardipine” to identify studies in which RCVS was treated with IA calcium channel blockers.

They identified eight case studies and case series that met our inclusion criteria. Eighteen patients are encompassed in these eight studies.

IA administration of calcium channel blockers has been shown to return cerebral vessels to their normal caliber in patients with medically refractory RCVS. However, there are no randomized controlled trials of the treatment of RCVS, and further studies are needed to elucidate the optimal treatment protocol for medically refractory RCVS 2).

1)
Moussouttas M, Abubakr A, Grewal RP, Papamitsakis N. Eclamptic subarachnoid haemorrhage without hypertension. J Clin Neurosci. 2006 May;13(4):474-6. PubMed PMID: 16678728.
2)
Al-Mufti F, Dodson V, Wajswol E, El-Ghanem M, Alchaki A, Nuoman R, Thabet A, Sutherland A, Roychowdhury S, Hidalgo A, Gupta G. Chemical angioplasty for medically refractory reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome(). Br J Neurosurg. 2018 Sep 12:1-5. doi: 10.1080/02688697.2018.1479512. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30207193.
nimodipine.txt · Last modified: 2018/09/14 08:49 by administrador