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parasagittal_meningioma

Parasagittal meningioma

Harvey Williams Cushing and Louise Eisenhardt defined parasagittal meningioma as one that fills the parasagittal angle with no brain tissue between the tumor and superior sagittal sinus. Sometimes, it invade partially or completely the superior sagittal sinus 1).

Classification

There are two general categories of these tumors. The first involves only the lateral edge of the sagittal sinus and adjacent convexity dura and the second extensively involves the sinus, adjacent falx, and convexity dura.

The overlying bone may be involved in tumor and in some cases there may be hyperostosis. In considering both the symptoms and the surgical aspects of these tumors, it is useful to divide them into those that occur along the anterior, middle, and posterior third of the sagittal sinus.

The anterior third of the sinus extends from the crista Galli to the coronal suture. the middle third from the coronal to the lambdoid sutures. and the posterior third from the lambdoid suture to the torcular.


They have been considered by large series as a single entity.

Central gyrus region meningioma

Parasagittal meningioma of the posterior third

History

During excavation in 1931 by Riek in the cave of Vogelherd close to Stetten in the Lone Valley in southwestern Germany there was found an anatomically modern human skull (called: “Stetten 2”) dated 32500 years before present. The skull was excavated without postcranial skeleton in the cave and showed no signs of burial. Paleopathological examinations of the calvarium reveals skeletal abnormalities that indicate parasagittal meningioma next to the bregma. Paracentral Meningiomas cause seizures and focal weakness, followed by headache. These observations are discussed in the context of modern medical knowledge. Our theory integrated archaeological, anthropological and paleopathological knowledge and helped to create the understanding of Paleolithic and earliest modern man knew regarding the “brain” and illness 2).

Meningiomas frequently invade cerebral venus sinuses, especially parasagittal meningioma to superior sagittal sinus. A frontal parasagittal meningioma could invade directly the internal jugular vein 3).

Epidemiology

85-90% of the meningiomas are supratentorial. 45% parasagittal, convexities.

Clinical presentation

Rare

Monoparesis of the leg 4)

Painless legs and moving toes 5).

Abducens nerve palsy 6).

An unusual case of Parkinsonism secondary to right parasagittal meningioma 7).

Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis

Intracerebral schwannoma 8) 9) 10) 11).

Extra-axial ependymoma 12) 13).

Fibrous histiocytoma 14).

Rosai-Dorfman disease 15).

Separate tumors

A 70-year-old woman with an asymptomatic parasagittal meningioma had been under observation with follow-up imaging for 2 years. She gradually developed motor weakness in the left hand. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging disclosed a newly developed well-enhanced area in the cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the stable original meningioma. The new lesion was enhanced more intensely and less well demarcated. We suspected that the meningioma had enlarged into the brain parenchyma, although MR imaging suggested a border between the extra-axial and intra-axial portions. Craniotomy was performed. Two separate tumors were identified with quite different histological features. The extra-axial tumor was identified as benign transitional meningioma and the intra-axial tumor as diffuse large cell type malignant lymphoma. Immunostaining revealed the lymphoma had B cell origin. After surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery was performed for the residual lymphoma. The original site of the lymphoma remained free from relapse, but another lesion developed in the right frontal lobe 3 months later and chemotherapy was performed. The main concern for follow-up imaging of asymptomatic meningioma without surgical resection is growth of the meningioma. However, development of new different tumors is possible, although thought to be rare 16)

Simultaneous detection of an intracranial meningioma with a pituitary tumour prior to radiotherapy is an extremely uncommon occurrence. Mathuriya et al., have managed an elderly acromegalic lady with an acidophilic pituitary adenoma, who also harboured an asymptomatic anterior third parasagittal meningioma. There were no features of neurofibromatosis. Both tumours were concurrently excised 17).

Treatment

Surgical treatment of parasagittal meningiomas is challenging. Preserving the venous outflow is the key point, but this may preclude radical resection. Different surgical strategies have been proposed. To contribute to the debate on the optimal strategy for treating these tumors, a single-institutional, single-surgeon series of patients with parasagittal meningiomas was analyzed and the available literature reviewed. Analysis of the data obtained in the 67 patients confirmed good outcome and long-term tumor control following a surgical strategy aimed to preserve venous outflow. These findings and the results of the authors' analysis of the literature emphasize that the goal of radical tumor resection should be balanced by an awareness of the increased surgical risk attendant on aggressive management of the SSS and bridging veins 18).

In surgical planning of the parasagittal meningioma, invasion and occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus are important factors. When tumor is located within anterior 1/3, or when angiographic finding shows total occlusion of superior sagittal sinus, it is regarded that the ligation of superior sagittal sinus is safe. A case of parasagittal meningioma in 59-year-old male patient with complete occlusion of superior sagittal sinus which was confirmed by preoperative angiography, who developed temporary neurologic deterioration after superior sagittal sinus ligation and resection 19)

Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGVA) can assist the different stages of parasagittal meningiomas surgery, guiding the vein management and tumor resection strategies with a favorable final clinical outcome. However, Della Puppa et al., experience that the use of other complementary tools was mandatory in selected cases to preserve functional areas. Further studies are needed to confirm that the application of ICGVA in parasagittal meningioma surgery may improve the morbidity rate, as reported 20).

Endoscopy

For treating a patient with multiple falcine and parasagittal lesions, Yamaguchi et al. believe that it is beneficial to resect the maximum possible number of lesions during one operation, even if some lesions are asymptomatic. This practice can potentially reduce the total number of operations during a patient's lifetime 21).

Spektor et al. describe the purely endoscopic removal of an atypical parasagittal meningioma in a patient who could not undergo standard craniotomy due to severe scalp atrophy following childhood irradiation for tinea capitis.

A 68-year-old man in good general health presented with a parasagittal meningioma that recurred following subtotal removal and adjuvant fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (FSR). The scalp above the tumor location was very diseased and precluded a regular craniotomy for tumor removal. A 4-cm craniotomy was made in the midline forehead, where the skin was normal. A rigid endoscope was advanced under neuronavigation through the interhemispheric fissure, which provided good access with limited retraction, until the tumor was encountered at a depth of 7-8 cm. Two surgeons performed the surgery using a “four-hands technique”. The tumor was removed and the insertion area was resected and coagulated.

The surgery was uneventful, with no coagulation or transection of major veins. A subtotal resection was achieved, and the patient recovered with no neurological deficit.

Safe resection of parasagittal meningiomas with a purely endoscopic technique is feasible. This option needs further exploration as an alternative strategy in patients with severely atrophic scalp skin that greatly increases the risk of significant healing complications with calvarian craniotomy 22).

Cortical vein end-to-end anastomosis

This technique, which consists of insertion of a Venflon tube in the vein during anastomosis, results in easier handling and proper apposition of the vein, resulting in an improved quality of the anastomosis. The technique was successfully applied in a patient after parasagittal meningioma resection, and the patency of the cortical vein was confirmed postoperatively on magnetic resonance venography 23)

It has been reported a combination of endovascular stent placement and radiotherapy 24).

After radiosurgery peritumoral edema tends to occur in meningiomas with a parasagittal position. Radiation necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and radiation injury to the vasculature causing hyalinization of blood vessels are suggested as the underlying histopathology 25).

Videos

Complications

retrospectively reviewed 132 patients with parasagittal meningiomas operated in the Department of Neurosurgery during the period of 1995-2000. Forty-four (33.3%) meningiomas invaded the superior sigittal sinus (SSS) and partially or totally obturated it. One hundred-five (79.5%) meningiomas were removed totally and post-surgery results of 111 (84.1%) patients were good. On discharge 17 (12.9%) were in poor condition, and 4 (3%) patients died. Postoperative complications occurred in 46 (34.8%) patients 26).

Venous Infarction

see Venous infarction

Venous air embolism (VAE) during an elective craniotomy for parasagittal meningioma resection. The surgery was done in the supine position with slightly elevated head position. VAE was provisionally diagnosed by sudden decreased in the end tidal carbon dioxide pressure from 34 to 18 mmHg, followed by marked hypotension and atrial fibrillation. Prompt central venous blood aspiration, aggressive resuscitation and inotropic support managed to stabilize the patient. Post operatively, he was admitted in neuro intensive care unit and made a good recovery without serious complications 27).

Intraoperative fatal pulmonary embolism 28).

Paraparesis can occur as a primary presentation of brain pathology at the motor strip along the parasagittal region. It could also occur as a neurological complication especially following resection of parasagittal meningioma with infiltration of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). We report a case of a complete paraparesis immediately following resection of bilateral parasagittal meningioma with infiltration of the middle third of the SSS. A gradual improvement in neurological recovery and functional outcome was observed over a period of one year after undergoing an intensive neurorehabilitation program beginning from the acute inpatient phase post surgery 29).

Hemostatic agents, routinely used in neurosurgery to achieve intraoperative hemostasis may cause foreign body reaction. These may produce clinically symptomatic and radiologically apparent mass lesions. It should be kept in mind that retained cotton or rayon materials may mimic the appearance of a tumor or an abscess on MRI scan, especially at sides of previous craniotomies. Here we report a case of intracranial foreign body granuloma which occurred due to remained cottonoid after removal of a parasagittal meningioma. This entity was also documented by MR imaging technics included diffusion weighted, flair and ADC mapping 30).

Recurrence

Recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas are uncommon tumors that recur despite receiving extensive surgery and radiation therapy (RT).

Abou Al-Shaar et al have utilized brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in two such patients with a unique implantation technique. Both patients had recurrence of WHO Grade II falcine meningiomas despite multiple prior surgical and RT treatments. Radioactive I-125 seeds were made into strands and sutured into a mesh implant, with 1 cm spacing, in a size appropriate to cover the cavity and region of susceptible falcine dura. Following resection the vicryl mesh was implanted and fixed to the margins of the falx. Implantation in this interhemispheric space provides good dose conformality with targeting of at-risk tissue and minimal radiation exposure to normal neural tissues. The patients are recurrence free 31 and 10 months after brachytherapy treatment. Brachytherapy was an effective salvage treatment for the recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas in our two patients 31).

Case series

Analysis of the data obtained in 67 patients confirmed good outcome and long-term tumor control following a surgical strategy aimed to preserve venous outflow. These findings and the results of the authors' analysis of the literature emphasize that the goal of radical tumor resection should be balanced by an awareness of the increased surgical risk attendant on aggressive management of the SSS and bridging veins 32).

Case reports

2016

A 68-year-old man in good general health presented with a parasagittal meningioma that recurred following subtotal removal and adjuvant fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (FSR). The scalp above the tumor location was very diseased and precluded a regular craniotomy for tumor removal. A 4-cm craniotomy was made in the midline forehead, where the skin was normal. A rigid endoscope was advanced under neuronavigation through the interhemispheric fissure, which provided good access with limited retraction, until the tumor was encountered at a depth of 7-8 cm. Two surgeons performed the surgery using a “four-hands technique”. The tumor was removed and the insertion area was resected and coagulated.

The surgery was uneventful, with no coagulation or transection of major veins. A subtotal resection was achieved, and the patient recovered with no neurological deficit.

Safe resection of parasagittal meningiomas with a purely endoscopic technique is feasible. This option needs further exploration as an alternative strategy in patients with severely atrophic scalp skin that greatly increases the risk of significant healing complications with calvarian craniotomy 33)

2012

The case of a 34-year-old man with bilateral parasagittal meningioma who developed pulmonary metastases is described. The meningioma was an enormous hypervascular tumor with invasion of the superior sagittal sinus. The tumor was resected completely and histologically diagnosed as transitional meningioma. The Ki-67 labeling index was 5%. Four months after operation, the patient subsequently developed bilateral multiple lung lesions later identified as metastases. The lung lesions were partially removed surgically and histologically diagnosed as meningothelial meningioma WHO grade I. The Ki-67 labeling index was 2%. The histological findings demonstrated that the tumor occupied the arterial lumen and the perivascular space, suggesting that pulmonary tumors might metastasize via the vascular route. The histopathological features and mechanisms of metastasizing meningiomas are reviewed and discussed 34).

Literature

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1)
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Singh V, Turel MK, Chacko G, Joseph V, Rajshekhar V. Supratentorial extra-axial anaplastic ependymoma mimicking a meningioma. Neurol India. 2012 Jan-Feb;60(1):111-3. PubMed PMID: 22406799.
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Salunke P, Kovai P, Sura S, Gupta K. Extra-axial ependymoma mimicking a parasagittal meningioma. J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Mar;18(3):418-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2010.04.042. Epub 2011 Jan 13. PubMed PMID: 21236682.
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Tsutsumi M, Kawano T, Kawaguchi T, Kaneko Y, Ooigawa H, Yoshida T. Intracranial meningeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma–case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001 Feb;41(2):90-3. PubMed PMID: 11255634.
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Kattner KA, Stroink AR, Roth TC, Lee JM. Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking parasagittal meningioma: case presentation and review of literature. Surg Neurol. 2000 May;53(5):452-7; discussion 457. Review. PubMed PMID: 10874144.
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18) , 32)
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parasagittal_meningioma.txt · Last modified: 2017/07/08 15:12 by administrador