User Tools

Site Tools


Time of flight magnetic resonance angiography

Time of flight angiography (TOF) is an MRI technique to visualize flow within vessels, without the need to administer contrast. It is based on the phenomenon of flow-related enhancement of spins entering into an imaging slice. As a result of being unsaturated, these spins give more signal that surrounding stationary spins.

With 2-D TOF, multiple thin imaging slices are acquired with a flow-compensated gradient-echo sequence. These images can be combined by using a technique of reconstruction such as maximum intensity projection (MIP), to obtain a 3-D image of the vessels analogous to conventional angiography.

With 3-D TOF, a volume of images is obtained simultaneously by phase-encoding in the slice-select direction. An angiographic appearance can be generated using MIP, as is done with 2-D TOF.

Time of flight magnetic resonance angiography, has become an important diagnostic tool to depict cerebral vasculature 1) 2) 3).

This non-invasive technique is now widely considered equivalent to the gold standard, digital subtraction angiography for some applications such as follow-up of coiled cerebral aneurysms 4) 5) 6) 7) 8).

TOF MRA seemed to be reliable in screening for aneurysm recurrence after coil embolization with Enterprise stent assistance, especially in the evaluation of the source images (SI), in addition to maximal intensity projection (MIP) images in the TOF MRA 9).

High spatial resolution time-of-flight MR angiography can be recommended for preoperative imaging of lenticulostriate arteries to plan the extent of neurosurgical resection in patients with glial tumors of the insular lobe 10).

Brugieres P, Ricolfi F, Revel MP, Combes C, Gaston A (1993) Functional exploration of brain vessels by MRI. Usefulness of presaturation techniques. Journal of Neuroradiology 20: 239–251
2) , 4)
Brugières P, Blustajn J, Le Guérinel C, Méder JF, Thomas P, et al. (1998) Magnetic resonance angiography of giant intracranial aneurysms. Neuroradiology 40: 96–102
3) , 5)
Monninghoff C, Maderwald S, Theysohn JM, Kraff O, Ladd SC, et al. (2009) Evaluation of intracranial aneurysms with 7 T versus 1.5 T time-of-flight MR angiography - initial experience. RoFo: Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 181: 16–23
Chung TS, Joo JY, Lee SK, Chien D, Laub G (1999) Evaluation of cerebral aneurysms with high-resolution MR angiography using a section-interpolation technique: correlation with digital subtraction angiography. Am J Neuroradiol 20: 229–235
Majoie CBLM, Sprengers ME, Van Rooij WJJ, Lavini C, Sluzewski M, et al. (2005) MR angiography at 3 T versus digital subtraction angiography in the follow-up of intracranial aneurysms treated with detachable coils. American Journal of Neuroradiology 26: 1349–1356
Papke K, Brassel F (2006) Modern cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of intracranial aneurysms. Eur Radiol 16: 2051–2066
Cho YD, Kim KM, Lee WJ, Sohn CH, Kang HS, Kim JE, Han MH. Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Follow-Up of Coil Embolization with Enterprise Stent for Intracranial Aneurysm: Usefulness of Source Images. Korean J Radiol.2014 Jan;15(1):161-8. doi: 10.3348/kjr.2014.15.1.161. Epub 2014 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 24497808.
Bykanov AE, Pitskhelauri DI, Pronin IN, Tonoyan AS, Kornienko VN, Zakharova NE, Turkin AM, Sanikidze AZ, Shkarubo MA, Shkatova AM, Shults EI. [3D-TOF MR-angiography with high spatial resolution for surgical planning in insular lobe gliomas]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko. 2015;79(3):5-14. Russian. PubMed PMID: 26529529.
time_of_flight_magnetic_resonance_angiography.txt · Last modified: 2015/11/08 20:17 (external edit)