During excavation in 1931 by Riek in the cave of Vogelherd close to Stetten in the Lone Valley in southwestern Germany there was found an anatomically modern human skull (called: “Stetten 2”) dated 32500 years before present. The skull was excavated without postcranial skeleton in the cave and showed no signs of burial. Paleopathological examinations of the calvarium reveals skeletal abnormalities that indicate parasagittal meningioma next to the bregma. Paracentral Meningiomas cause seizures and focal weakness, followed by headache. These observations are discussed in the context of modern medical knowledge. Our theory integrated archaeological, anthropological and paleopathological knowledge and helped to create the understanding of Paleolithic and earliest modern man knew regarding the “brain” and illness 1).
Axel Herbert Olivecrona (1891-1980) singlehandedly founded Swedish neurosurgery. At the International Congress in Neurology in Bern in August, 1931, Harvey Cushing invited the cream of the world's medical society to a private banquet. Among the 28 specially invited guests was Herbert Olivecrona. At 40 years old, Olivecrona took his seat with pioneers such as Otfrid Foerster, Percival Bailey, Hugh Cairns, Geoffrey Jefferson, and Sir Charles Scott Sherrington. This suggests that Cushing was impressed by the Swedish aristocrat's didactic deeds when he visited the Serafimer Hospital in Stockholm 2 years earlier.
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