The field of human stereotactic neurosurgery was introduced by Ernest A. Spiegel and Henry T. Wycis by a historical paper in Science in 1947. Spiegel was a conservative Vienna trained experimental neurologist who fled the Nazis to Temple Medical School in Philadelphia. Wycis was a huge flamboyant but brilliant neurosurgeon who started as Spiegel's student and then became his collaborator. They described a Horsley-Clarke apparatus that could be used in human stereotactic surgery. It relied on internal cerebral landmarks, which made it accurate enough to be used in humans. The fields of human neurophysiology, pneumoencephalography, radiology, and electrophysiology had advanced enough to provide for the first time the required technology. At the time of their initial publication, they had probably already performed surgery for psychiatric illness, pain, movement disorders, and aspiration of tumor cysts. The first decade after their publication was a remarkably productive time for them and the other pioneers who entered the field 1).

In 1947, Rizzoli and Hayes trapped and excised a Posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm 2).

1: THOREK P. Vagus nerve section (vagotomy) in the treatment of peptic ulcers; review of literature and report of personal cases. J Am Med Assoc. 1947 Dec 27;135(17):1141-5. PubMed PMID: 20272534.

2: LENNON GG. Pelvic sympathectomy. Br Med J. 1947 Dec 27;2(4538):1057. PubMed PMID: 18935604; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2056459.

3: BUCK AE. Battle neurosis treated with leucotomy. Br Med J. 1947 Dec 27;2(4538):1053. PubMed PMID: 18935594; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2056487.

4: SAALER B. Battle neurosis treated with leucotomy. Br Med J. 1947 Dec 20;2(4537):1009. PubMed PMID: 18935502; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2057545.

5: McCANN JC. Anesthesia with intravenous pentothal sodium and local nerve block in gynecologic surgery. N Engl J Med. 1947 Dec 18;237(25):931-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM194712182372501. PubMed PMID: 20272696.

6: SCARFF JE, KALINOWSKY LB. Prefrontal lobotomy under direct vision; survey of psychiatric aspects. N Y State J Med. 1947 Dec 15;47(24):2669-75. PubMed PMID: 18919243.

7: GILSENAN BC, WINNICOTT DW. Battle neurosis treated with leucotomy. Br Med J. 1947 Dec 13;2(4536):973. PubMed PMID: 18935587; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2056304.

8: FRANKL L, MAYER-GROSS W. Personality change after prefrontal leucotomy. Lancet. 1947 Dec 6;2(6484):820-4. PubMed PMID: 20272641.

9: WULFF HB. Vagotomy for peptic ulcer; theoretical background and clinical results. Acta Chir Scand. 1947 Dec 5;96(3):265-82. PubMed PMID: 18918413.

10: RIECHERT T. [Not Available]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1947 Dec 5;72(45-46):672. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18908180.

11: LORD JW Jr, HINTON JW. The operative and postoperative management of hypertensive patients undergoing thoracolumbar sympathectomy. N Engl J Med. 1947 Dec 4;237(23):840-3. doi: 10.1056/NEJM194712042372303. PubMed PMID: 20271312.

12: COLE WH, WALTER L, REYNOLDS J. Vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer. South Surg. 1947 Dec;13(12):870-84. PubMed PMID: 20273527.

13: LAMPHIER TA, CASHMAN C. Streptomycin; its value in treating sepsis following a cranioplasty procedure; a case report. Mil Surg. 1947 Dec;101(6):505. PubMed PMID: 20273518.

14: SEABROOK DB. Surgical treatment of peptic ulcer; with a report of 39 vagotomies. Portland Clin Bull. 1947 Dec;1(3):51-61. PubMed PMID: 20272746.

15: HARKINS HN. The present status of vagotomy in surgical treatment of peptic ulcer. Northwest Med. 1947 Dec;46(12):945-8. PubMed PMID: 20272729.

16: DE TAKATS G. Indications for lumbar sympathectomy. Ill Med J. 1947 Dec;92(6):349-51. PubMed PMID: 20272515.

17: MACKAY HJ. A method of cranioplasty using ready-made acrylic cranioprostheses. Surgery. 1947 Dec;22(6):965-75. PubMed PMID: 20271804.

18: JOHNSON J, MACHELLA TE. Vagotomy for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Surg Clin North Am. 1947 Dec;27(6):1406-15. PubMed PMID: 20271780.

19: COLLINS DA, BECKS H, et al. Ossification at the distal end of the metacarpal in the female rat; changes at progressively long intervals following hypophysectomy. J Dent Res. 1947 Dec;26(6):469. PubMed PMID: 18935615.

20: BECKS H, ASLING CW, et al. Ossification at the distal end of the humerus in the female rat; response to pituitary growth hormone and thyroxin after hypophysectomy. J Dent Res. 1947 Dec;26(6):466. PubMed PMID: 18935574.

21: MAY RM. Cerebral regeneration induced by simultaneous intraocular grafting of newborn cerebral tissue and sciatic nerve in the mouse. Anat Rec. 1947 Dec;99(4):630. PubMed PMID: 18935434.

22: ROTHCHILD I. The survival of adult hens following hypophysectomy. Anat Rec. 1947 Dec;99(4):596. PubMed PMID: 18935396.

23: OPPENHEIMER JM. Functional regulation in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos with operated brains. Anat Rec. 1947 Dec;99(4):565. PubMed PMID: 18935363.

24: KAUDERS O, SCHONBAUER L. [Not Available]. Klin Med Osterr Z Wiss Prakt Med. 1947 Dec 1;2(23):1105. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18932337.

25: MAN EB, BETTCHER PG, et al. Plasma-amino acids, serum lipids, and proteins after prefrontal lobotomy in seven schizophrenic patients. Yale J Biol Med. 1947 Dec;20(2):175-83. PubMed PMID: 18920408; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2602142.

26: MARTIN JH. Vagotomy. Manit Med Rev. 1947 Dec;27(12):681. PubMed PMID: 18917909.

27: GREENBLATT M, ARNOT RE, et al. Report on lobotomy studies at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital. Am J Psychiatry. 1947 Dec;104(6):361-8. PubMed PMID: 18911620.

28: MEYER RK, TALBERT GB, MC SHAN WH. Effect of interval between hypophysectomy and injection of gonadotrophin on ovulation in the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1947 Dec;66(3):566. PubMed PMID: 18900026.

29: FREEMEN NE, LEEDS FH, GARDNER RE. Sympathectomy for obliterative arterial disease; indications and contraindications. Ann Surg. 1947 Dec;126(6):873-94. PubMed PMID: 18898653.

30: BECKS H, COLLINS DA, et al. Ossification at the distal end of the metacarpal in the female rat; response to pituitary growth hormone and thyroxin after hypophysectomy. J Dent Res. 1947 Dec;26(6):467. PubMed PMID: 18897301.

31: ASLING CW, BECKS H, et al. Ossification at the distal end of the humerus in the female rat; changes at progressively longer intervals following hypophysectomy. J Dent Res. 1947 Dec;26(6):465. PubMed PMID: 18897299.

32: GURD FB. Decortication in chronic empyema of tuberculous origin. J Thorac Surg. 1947 Dec;16(6):587-601. PubMed PMID: 18897046.

33: ZOLLINGER RM, HOERR SO, JACOB S. An evaluation of vagus resection for peptic ulcer. Health Cent J. 1947 Dec;1(1):1-7. PubMed PMID: 18863241.

34: OTTO. [Not Available]. Dtsch Med Rundsch. 1947 Dec;1(12):449. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18856946.

35: GLEES P. [Not Available]. Dtsch Med Rundsch. 1947 Dec;1(12):448. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18856945.

36: SARGANT W, STEWART CM. Chronic battle neurosis treated with leucotomy. Br Med J. 1947 Nov 29;2(4534):866-9. PubMed PMID: 20272445; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2056234.

37: GREENHILL JP. Sympathectomy and intraspinal alcohol injections for relief of pelvic pain. Br Med J. 1947 Nov 29;2(4534):859-62. PubMed PMID: 20272441; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2056201.

38: GRIFFITHS M. Effects of anterior pituitary extract and hypophysectomy on blood-sugar levels after injection of alloxan. Nature. 1947 Nov 29;160(4074):758. PubMed PMID: 18935535.

39: GUYOT R. [Not Available]. Lyon Med. 1947 Nov 23;178(47):776-8. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18899164.

40: FOXTON HV. Prefrontal leucotomy. Med J Aust. 1947 Nov 22;2(21):645. PubMed PMID: 18919191.

41: GALLART MONES F. [Not Available]. Medicamenta (Madr). 1947 Nov 16;5(137):267-9. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18857278.

42: JOFFE H. pH changes in synovial fluid following perivascular sympathectomy. Proc Inst Med Chic. 1947 Nov 15;16(17):465. PubMed PMID: 18896440.

43: SHORVON HJ. Prefrontal leucotomy and the depersonalization syndrome. Lancet. 1947 Nov 15;2(6481):714-8. PubMed PMID: 18896075.

44: GOLLA FL. Convulsive therapy; leucotomy. Nurs Mirror Midwives J. 1947 Nov 8;86(2222):107. PubMed PMID: 20273104.

45: MACHELLA TE, HODGES HH, LORBER SH. The pharmacologic promotion of evacuation from the post-vagotomy retentive stomach. J Clin Invest. 1947 Nov;26(6):1189. PubMed PMID: 20340954.

46: CRAFTS RC, WALKER BS. The effects of hypophysectomy on serum and storage iron in adult female rats. Endocrinology. 1947 Nov;41(5):340-6. PubMed PMID: 20272252.

47: CRAWFORD AS. Medullary tractotomy for relief of intractable pain in upper levels. Arch Surg. 1947 Nov;55(5):523-9. PubMed PMID: 20271746.

48: JENNINGS C. Sympathectomy in peripheral arterial disease and injury. J Med Assoc Ga. 1947 Nov;36(11):440-7. PubMed PMID: 20271175.

49: TOMAN JE, WOODBURY JW, WOODBURY LA. Mechanism of nerve conduction block produced by anticholinesterases. J Neurophysiol. 1947 Nov;10(6):429-41. PubMed PMID: 20268877.

50: CARROLL JJ, HOGG FJ. Intercostal nerve block in the treatment and prevention of post-operative atelectasis. Can Med Assoc J. 1947 Nov;57(5):472-4. PubMed PMID: 20268537; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1590638.

51: BUCY PC, OBERHILL HR. Combination suction-cautery tip for use in neurological surgery. J Neurosurg. 1947 Nov;4(6):545. PubMed PMID: 20267947.

52: SCOVILLE WB. A self-retaining hemilaminectomy retractor. J Neurosurg. 1947 Nov;4(6):544. PubMed PMID: 20267946.

53: LANE S, WEBSTER JE. A report of the early results in tantalum cranioplasty. J Neurosurg. 1947 Nov;4(6):526-9. PubMed PMID: 20267942.

54: YUNG JR. Presacral neurectomy for relief of uterine dysmenorrhea. J Int Coll Surg. 1947 Nov-Dec;10(6):675-8. PubMed PMID: 18921662.

55: CHARLIER R, PHILIPPOT E. [Not Available]. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1947 Nov 1;75(2):174-81. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18919511.

56: LIPTON BS. Blocking of chemical decerebration by pontile pathology; case report. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1947 Nov;106(5):537-9. PubMed PMID: 18918202.

57: BROWDER J. Neurosurgery of the parasellar region. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1947 Nov;58(5):643-9. PubMed PMID: 18918188.

58: MASSABUAU, COURTY A, BISCAYE A. [Not Available]. Gaz Med Fr. 1947 Nov;54(21):712-5. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18912816.

59: PERELMAN MI. [Leriche's sympathectomy on femoral artery in treatment of trophic lesions of lower extremities following gunshot wounds]. Vopr Neirokhir. 1947 Nov-Dec;11(6):47-9. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18911702.

60: RAZDOLSKY IJ. [Diagnosis of tumors of the frontal lobe; symptom of coxofemoral abduction]. Vopr Neirokhir. 1947 Nov-Dec;11(6):9-11. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18911695.

61: GILLETT CF. Simple trephining in acute frontal sinusitis. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1947 Nov;47(3):185-7. PubMed PMID: 18895716.

62: ESPIN HERRERO J. [Not Available]. Med Esp. 1947 Nov;10(104):411-28. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18862467.

63: Schoen AM, Griswold RA. The Effect of Vagotomy on Human Gastric Function: A Preliminary Report. Ann Surg. 1947 Nov;126(5):655-63. PubMed PMID: 17859022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1803519.

64: EDWARDS KF. Four cases of prefrontal leucotomy. Med J Aust. 1947 Oct 25;2(17):512-6. PubMed PMID: 20271255.

65: DIBDEN WA. Prefrontal leucotomy for obsessional neurosis: report of a case. Med J Aust. 1947 Oct 25;2(17):511. PubMed PMID: 20271254.

66: BIRCH HM. Prefrontal leucotomy. Med J Aust. 1947 Oct 25;2(17):508. PubMed PMID: 20271252.

67: SPURLING RG. Neurosurgery (and the neurosurgeon) in World War II. J Am Med Assoc. 1947 Oct 25;135(8):473-6. PubMed PMID: 20264953.

68: FROEHLICH F. [Not Available]. Prog Med (Paris). 1947 Oct 24;75(20):516-9. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18903035.

69: MOSES WR. Critique on vagotomy. N Engl J Med. 1947 Oct 23;237(17):603-10. doi: 10.1056/NEJM194710232371701. PubMed PMID: 20265309.

70: HAXTON HA. A cause of failure in sympathectomy? Lancet. 1947 Oct 18;2(6477):598. PubMed PMID: 20340588.

71: RAY BS. Recent advances in neurosurgery. NY Med. 1947 Oct 5;3(19):19-22, 40. PubMed PMID: 20265320.

72: MYERSON A, MYERSON PG. Prefrontal lobotomy in the chronic depressive states of old age. N Engl J Med. 1947 Oct 2;237(14):511. doi: 10.1056/NEJM194710022371403. PubMed PMID: 20265292.

73: GRIMSON KS. Observations on abdominal visceral pain pathways in patients undergoing celiac ganglionectomy and vagotomy or sympathectomy. Am J Med. 1947 Oct;3(4):508. PubMed PMID: 20344783.

74: STEWART-WALLACE AM. The physicochemical investigation of cerebral oedema. Proc R Soc Med. 1947 Oct;40(12):697. PubMed PMID: 20340830.

75: GREENFIELD JG. The problem of cerebral oedema in neuro-surgery. Proc R Soc Med. 1947 Oct;40(12):695-7. PubMed PMID: 20340829.

76: VINCENT C, LE BEAU J, GUIOT G. Brain oedema in neuro-surgery. Proc R Soc Med. 1947 Oct;40(12):689-95. PubMed PMID: 20340828.

77: BAILEY CC, LeCOMPTE PM, et al. Aloxan diabetes in hypophysectomized rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1947 Oct;66(1):271-4. PubMed PMID: 20270752.

78: BRIGGS H, KEATS S, SCHLESINGER PT. Wedge osteotomy of the spine with bilateral intervertebral foraminotomy; correction of flexion deformity in five cases of ankylosing arthritis of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1947 Oct;29(4):1075-82. PubMed PMID: 20270373.

79: FEHR A. [Not Available]. Helv Chir Acta. 1947 Oct;14(4-5):360-3. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20270341.

80: WALTERS W, NEIBLING HA, et al. Anatomic distribution of the vagus nerves at lower end of the esophagus; relation to gastric neurectomy for ulcer. Arch Surg. 1947 Oct;55(4):400-22. PubMed PMID: 20270303.

81: PORTEUS SD, PETERS HN. Psychosurgery and test validity. J Abnorm Psychol. 1947 Oct;42(4):473-5. PubMed PMID: 20270215.

82: BABCOCK H. A case of anxiety neurosis before and after lobotomy. J Abnorm Psychol. 1947 Oct;42(4):466-72. PubMed PMID: 20270214.

83: PETERS HN. Traits related to improved adjustment of psychotics after lobotomy. J Abnorm Psychol. 1947 Oct;42(4):383-92. PubMed PMID: 20270207.

84: FREEMAN W, WATTS JW. Psychosurgery during 1936-1946. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1947 Oct;58(4):417-25. PubMed PMID: 20269878.

85: KEMP CR, TUTTLE WW, HINES HM. Studies on the temperature characteristics, blood flow and activity in normal and denervated limbs of the dog. Am J Physiol. 1947 Oct 1;150(4):705-11. PubMed PMID: 20268848.

86: CRILE G Jr. Transabdominal vagotomy versus gastric resection in the treatment of duodenal ulcer; a comparison of results. Cleve Clin Q. 1947 Oct;14(4):264-70. PubMed PMID: 20268552.

87: WHITE JC. Procaine block of the sympathetic nerves in the study of intractable pain and circulatory disorders. Surg Clin North Am. 1947 Oct;27:1263-80. PubMed PMID: 20266160.

88: LINTON RR, MOORE FD, et al. Thoracolumbar sympathectomy for hypertension: improvements in paravertebral and transpleural routes to facilitate extensive neurectomy. Surg Clin North Am. 1947 Oct;27:1178-87. PubMed PMID: 20266150.

89: SHUMACKER HB Jr. Sympathectomy as an adjuvant in the operative treatment of aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas sympathectomy performed after operation. Surgery. 1947 Oct;22(4):597-610. PubMed PMID: 20266124.

90: SHUMACKER HB Jr. Sympathectomy as an adjuvant in the operative treatment of aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas: sympathectomy performed before or at time of operation. Surgery. 1947 Oct;22(4):571-96. PubMed PMID: 20266123.

91: JEFFRIES EO, WILSON J. Prefrontal lobotomy and its nursing care. Trained Nurse Hosp Rev. 1947 Oct;119(4):268-75. PubMed PMID: 20265633.

92: VEIT H. Insulin therapy at Colorado Psychopathic Hospital. Dis Nerv Syst. 1947 Oct;8(10):320-3. PubMed PMID: 20265607.

93: GRAHAM GS Jr. Vagotomy in duodenal ulcer. Miss Doct. 1947 Oct;25(5):164-8. PubMed PMID: 20265276.

94: HINTON JW. Indications for thoracolumbar sympathectomy in advanced essential hypertension with end results of operation in 375 cases. Conn State Med J. 1947 Oct;11(10):805-7. PubMed PMID: 20264835.

95: IASON AH. Vagotomy for gastrojejunal ulcer. Bull Adelphi Hosp Brooklyn. 1947 Oct;6(1):2-6. PubMed PMID: 20264749.

96: DRAGSTEDT LR, FOURNIER HJ, et al. Transabdominal gastric vagotomy; a study of the anatomy and surgery of the vagus nerves at the lower portion of the esophagus. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1947 Oct;85(4):461-6. PubMed PMID: 20264331.

97: SEDDON RJ. Surgical experiences with peripheral nerve injuries. Q Bull Northwest Univ Med Sch. 1947 Fall;21(3):201-10. PubMed PMID: 20255894; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3802732.

98: Fulton JF. Harvey Cushing's Early Training-1887-1900. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1947 Oct;23(10):545-63. PubMed PMID: 19312552; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1871562.

99: BOYD AM. Treatment of deep peripheral thrombo-phlebitis by para vertebral sympathetic block. Manch Univ Med Sch Gaz. 1947 Oct;26(4):124-9. PubMed PMID: 18919172.

100: FLAX HJ. The treatment of cut nerves and tendons of the hand. Bol Asoc Med P R. 1947 Oct;39(10):367-72. PubMed PMID: 18908101.

101: ILLINGWORTH CF, KAY AW. Vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Edinb Med J. 1947 Oct;54(10):540-4. PubMed PMID: 18905335; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5277667.

102: ANGLADE D. [Not Available]. Toulouse Med. 1947 Oct;48(10):625-9. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18903119.

103: CASTELLO BRANCO JM. [Collapsotherapy lobectomy and contralateral secondary]. Clin Tisiol. 1947 Oct-Dec;2(7):449-58. Portuguese. PubMed PMID: 18899868.

104: HUDON F, PARADIS B. Diagnostic and therapeutic nerve blocks. Treat Serv Bull. 1947 Oct;2(8):17-22. PubMed PMID: 18857771.

105: MOSOVICH A, STEVENS H. [Not Available]. Prensa Med Argent. 1947 Sep 26;34(39):1858-63. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18899406.

106: INGRAHAM FD, ALEXANDER E Jr, MATSON DD. Polyethylene, a new synthetic plastic for use in surgery; experimental applications in neurosurgery. J Am Med Assoc. 1947 Sep 13;135(2):82-7. PubMed PMID: 20257753.

107: LYONNET JH. [Not Available]. Dia Med. 1947 Sep 11;4(11):89-95. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18901509.

108: MEGUSCHER AH, SORGER H. [Not Available]. Wien Z Inn Med. 1947 Sep;28(9):405-19. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20271454.

109: VORIS HC, LANDES HE. Pelvic sympathectomy. J Int Coll Surg. 1947 Sep-Oct;10(5):553-7. PubMed PMID: 20267926.

110: YULE E. Physical therapy in relation to facial nerve graft; a case report. Physiotherap Rev. 1947 Sep-Oct;27(5):287-9. PubMed PMID: 20266192.

111: LOWE ES. Vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcers. U S Nav Med Bull. 1947 Sep-Oct;47(5):785-95. PubMed PMID: 20265486.

112: PHANEUF LE. Presacral neurectomy in intractable dysmenorrhea. J Mt Sinai Hosp N Y. 1947 Sep-Oct;14(3):553-5. PubMed PMID: 20265091.

113: GREENHILL JP. Sympathectomy for the relief of pelvic pain in women. J Mt Sinai Hosp N Y. 1947 Sep-Oct;14(3):363-8. PubMed PMID: 20265069.

114: HERSHEY SG. The ball point pen as a technical aid in nerve block. Anesthesiology. 1947 Sep;8(5):541. PubMed PMID: 20264471.

115: GRIMSON KS, BAYLIN CJ, et al. The present status of vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer. N C Med J. 1947 Sep;8(9):563-8. PubMed PMID: 20263645.

116: WALTERS W, NEIBLING HA, et al. Vagotomy in peptic ulcer. Minn Med. 1947 Sep;30(9):965-8. PubMed PMID: 20263629.

117: PATRICELLI L. Presacral neurectomy in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Northwest Med. 1947 Sep;46(9):677-80. PubMed PMID: 20261481.

118: MALONE JP. Problems arising from prefrontal leucotomy. Ir J Med Sci. 1947 Sep;(261):573-9. PubMed PMID: 20261352.

119: BAILEY OT, INGRAHAM FD, et al. Fibrin film in neurosurgery, further studies; the insertion of fibrin film between the sutured dura and the intact leptomeninges; the effect of roentgen therapy on tissue reactions to fibrin film. J Neurosurg. 1947 Sep;4(5):465-71. PubMed PMID: 20260247.

120: FREEMAN LW, HEIMBURGER RF. The surgical relief of spasticity in paraplegic patients: anterior rhizotomy. J Neurosurg. 1947 Sep;4(5):435-43. PubMed PMID: 20260244.

121: CASTLETON KB. Vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Rocky Mt Med J. 1947 Sep;44(9):698-705. PubMed PMID: 20260090.

122: Denber HC. The Question of Regeneration of Nerve Fibers to the Human Adrenal Gland after Bilateral Sympathectomy. Ann Surg. 1947 Sep;126(3):332-9. PubMed PMID: 17858997; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1803367.

123: MICHELE AA, KRUEGER FJ. Vertebral body trephine; preliminary report. Public Health Rep. 1947 Aug 8;62(32):1166. PubMed PMID: 20344430.

124: HALLENBECK GA, PRIESTLEY JT. Transthoracic vagotomy; notes on unsatisfactory results in two cases. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 1947 Aug 6;22(16):332-6. PubMed PMID: 20255893.

125: KNIGHT RV. Bilateral vagotomy; a preliminary report in a case of duodenal ulcer. Med J Aust. 1947 Aug 2;2(5):141-3. PubMed PMID: 20259899.

126: PENNYBACKER JB, TAYLOR M, CAIRNS H. Penicillin in the prevention of infection during operations on the brain and spinal cord. Lancet. 1947 Aug 2;2(6466):159-62. PubMed PMID: 20255779.


128: HARKINS HN, HOOKER DH, et al. Symposium on vagotomy for peptic ulcer: experimental observations. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1947 Aug;81(2):79. PubMed PMID: 20344784.

129: JENNINGS RM, NIELSEN A, ERICKSON MH. Prefrontal lobotomy for severe conduct disorder. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1947 Aug;58(2):244. PubMed PMID: 20344694.

130: MACPHERSON LA. Lobectomy in tuberculosis. Treat Serv Bull. 1947 Aug-Sep;2(7):73. PubMed PMID: 20266225.

131: SMALL JT. Denervation of the stomach; historical review. Arch Surg. 1947 Aug;55(2):189-207. PubMed PMID: 20266064.

132: OLIVER JV. Effect of vagotomy on development of the Mann-Williamson ulcer in the dog. Arch Surg. 1947 Aug;55(2):180-8. PubMed PMID: 20266063.

133: GRIMSON KS, BAYLIN GJ, et al. Clinical evaluation of complications observed after transthoracic vagotomy. Arch Surg. 1947 Aug;55(2):175-9. PubMed PMID: 20266062.

134: MOORE FD. Resection of the vagus nerves for ulcer; an interim evaluation: operative technic and hospital management. Arch Surg. 1947 Aug;55(2):164-74. PubMed PMID: 20266061.

135: WALTERS W, NEIBLING HA, et al. Gastric neurectomy: anatomic and physiologic studies with favorable and unfavorable results in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Arch Surg. 1947 Aug;55(2):151-63. PubMed PMID: 20266060.

136: HARPER PV Jr, DRAGSTEDT LR. Section of the vagus nerves to the stomach in the treatment of benign gastric ulcer. Arch Surg. 1947 Aug;55(2):141-50. PubMed PMID: 20266059.

137: SALTZSTEIN HC, SANDWEISS DJ, et al. Effect of vagotomy on Mann-Williamson ulcers in dogs. Arch Surg. 1947 Aug;55(2):130-40. PubMed PMID: 20266058.

138: RINKEL M, GREENBLATT M, et al. The effect of bilateral frontal lobotomy upon the autonomic nervous system. Am J Psychiatry. 1947 Aug;104(2):81. PubMed PMID: 20265587.

139: STEVENS H, MOSOVICH A. Clinical and EEG investigation of prefrontal lobotomy patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1947 Aug;104(2):73-80. PubMed PMID: 20265586.

140: HANRAHAN EM. The experimental investigation of peptic ulcer. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1947 Aug;81(2):131-49. PubMed PMID: 20264755.

141: PAULSON M, GLADSDEN ES. Medical aspects of vagotomy for peptic ulcer, including observations on the clinical value of the insulin test and on post-operative criteria for the completeness of bilateral gastric vagus section. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1947 Aug;81(2):107-28. PubMed PMID: 20264754.

142: JOHNS TN, GROSE WE, et al. Symposium on vagotomy for peptic ulcer; early surgical results in 43 cases. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1947 Aug;81(2):92-106. PubMed PMID: 20264753.

143: HARKINS HN, HOOKER DH, et al. Symposium on vagotomy for peptic ulcer. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1947 Aug;81(2):79-130. PubMed PMID: 20264752.

144: POPKIN RJ. Effect of climate on evaluation of sympathectomy for peripheral vascular diseases. Ann West Med Surg. 1947 Aug;1(6):255-7. PubMed PMID: 20259478.

145: HINGSON RA, WHITACRE FE, et al. New horizons in therapeutic nerve block in the treatment of vascular and renal emergencies with continuous caudal and continuous spinal analgesia and anesthesia. South Surg. 1947 Aug;13(8):580-609. PubMed PMID: 20258670.

146: TURNER JW. Vagotomy. J Med Assoc Ga. 1947 Aug;36(8):287-90. PubMed PMID: 20257836.

147: LANIGAN JP. The neurosurgical relief of pain. Ir J Med Sci. 1947 Aug;(260):517-22. PubMed PMID: 20257737.

148: TINSLEY M. Radical extirpation of acute brain abscesses. Ill Med J. 1947 Aug;92(2):102-4. PubMed PMID: 20257722.

149: CAMERON DA. Vagotomy for peptic ulcer. Am J Med Sci. 1947 Aug;214(2):202-14. PubMed PMID: 20257480.

150: SMITHY HG, KREDEL FE. Localized acquired megacolon treated by sympathectomy. Surgery. 1947 Aug;22(2):259-70. PubMed PMID: 20256793.

151: HARKINS HN, HOOKER DH. Vagotomy for peptic ulcer; experimental and clinical studies. Surgery. 1947 Aug;22(2):239-45. PubMed PMID: 20256791.

152: GRIMSON KS, HESSER FH, KITCHIN WW. Early clinical results of transabdominal celiac and superior mesenteric ganglionectomy, vagotomy, or transthoracic splanchnicectomy in patients with chronic abdominal visceral pain. Surgery. 1947 Aug;22(2):230-8. PubMed PMID: 20256790.

153: RICHARDSON DJ, PAPPER EM. Nerve-blocking therapy for fractured ribs. J Thorac Surg. 1947 Aug;16(4):432-7. PubMed PMID: 20256753.

154: KRETCHMAR LH. Vagotomy. Wis Med J. 1947 Aug;46(8):794-6. PubMed PMID: 20255972.

155: MEGINNIS PJ. Caudal myotomy in the saddle horse. North Am Vet. 1947 Aug;28(8):503-8. PubMed PMID: 20255015.

156: BAKER GS. Surgery of the peripheral nerves; practical consideration of modern technics. Surg Clin North Am. 1947 Aug;27(4):978-86. PubMed PMID: 20254979.

157: WALTERS W, HEIBLING HA, et al. Favorable and unfavorable results of gastric neurectomy (vagotomy) for peptic ulcer: an anatomic, physiologic and clinical study. Surg Clin North Am. 1947 Aug;27(4):885-904. PubMed PMID: 20254973.

158: WILENSKY AO. Vagotomy for gastroduodenal ulcer. Rev Gastroenterol. 1947 Aug;14(8):570-2. PubMed PMID: 20253381.

159: SALTZSTEIN HC, SANDWEISS DJ, et al. Jejunitis following vagotomy in Mann-Williamson dogs. Harper Hosp Bull. 1947 Aug;5(4):126. PubMed PMID: 20251889.

160: WALTERS W. Vagotomy for peptic ulcer. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 1947 Jul 23;22(15):281-9. PubMed PMID: 20255885.

161: LA CAVA G. [Not Available]. Policlinico Prat. 1947 Jul 14;54(28):784. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20263687.

162: THOMPSON VC, JAMES AH. Vagotomy for peptic ulcer. Lancet. 1947 Jul 12;2(6463):44-7. PubMed PMID: 20252055.

163: GRIMSON KS, BAYLIN GJ, et al. Transthoracic vagotomy; the effects in 57 patients with peptic ulcer and the clinical limitations. J Am Med Assoc. 1947 Jul 12;134(11):925-32. PubMed PMID: 20251970.

164: WOLF S, WOLFF HG. Function of the stomach as observed in fistulous human subjects, with special reference to the action of drugs and the effects of vagotomy. Am J Med. 1947 Jul;3(1):127. PubMed PMID: 20343934.

165: CABRAL de MENEZES L. [Intravenous anesthesia in neurosurgery; personal considerations on 81 cases, consecutive, accident-free]. Rev Bras Cir. 1947 Jul;16(7):463-72. Portuguese. PubMed PMID: 20273523.

166: HAXTON HA. Regeneration after sympathectomy and its effects on Raynaud's disease. Br J Surg. 1947 Jul;35(137):69-76. PubMed PMID: 20266076.

167: LAZORTHES G, ANDUZE H. [Not Available]. Toulouse Med. 1947 Jul;48(7):407-9. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20260124.

168: LAZORTHES G. [Not Available]. Toulouse Med. 1947 Jul;48(7):399-406. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20260123.

169: SEGERBERG LH, MAYFIELD FH. The carotid sinus syndrome: a case report with cure by resection of the nerve of Hering. Christ Hosp Med Bull. 1947 Jul;1(1):27-32. PubMed PMID: 20257652.

170: RAY BS, PARSONS H. The replacement of free bone plates in routine craniotomies. J Neurosurg. 1947 Jul;4(4):299-308. PubMed PMID: 20254513.

171: VAGOTOMY in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Radiology. 1947 Jul;49(1):97-9. PubMed PMID: 20252949.

172: HAMLIN H. Lobotomy. R I Med J. 1947 Jul;30(7):511-3. PubMed PMID: 20252284.

173: WOODRUFF R, HUNTER RT. Indications for vagus nerve resection in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Rocky Mt Med J. 1947 Jul;44(7):523-5. PubMed PMID: 20250552.

174: FREEMAN W, WATTS JW. Prefrontal lobotomy; indications and contraindications. Med Ann Dist Columbia. 1947 Jul;16(7):355-60. PubMed PMID: 20250232.

175: KARNOSH LJ, GARDNER WJ. The effects of bilateral stellate ganglion block on mental depression; report of 3 cases. Cleve Clin Q. 1947 Jul;14(3):133-8. PubMed PMID: 20250097.

176: LORBER SH, MACHELLA TE, HODGES HH. Pharmacological promotion of evacuation from the post-vagotomy stomach. Am J Med. 1947 Jul;3(1):119. PubMed PMID: 20250006.

177: CHAMBERLIN JA, WINSHIP T. Anatomic variations of the vagus nerves, their significance in vagus neurectomy. Surgery. 1947 Jul;22(1):1-19. PubMed PMID: 20249256.

178: LINDROTH LV. Sympathetic nerve block in hypertension and allied cases. Am J Surg. 1947 Jul;74(1):66-8. PubMed PMID: 20249211.

179: BAZZOCCHI G. [Not Available]. Chir Ital. 1947 Jul-Oct;1(4-5):434-40. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18917535.

180: Clarke JS, Storer EH, Dragstedt LR. THE EFFECTS OF VAGOTOMY ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE STOMACH IN PATIENTS WITH PEPTIC ULCER. J Clin Invest. 1947 Jul;26(4):784-95. PubMed PMID: 16695470; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC439287.

181: PETIT-DUTAILLIS D, THEVENARD A. [Not Available]. Mem Acad Chir (Paris). 1947 June 25-July 9;73(22-24):480. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18902024.

182: DRAGSTEDT LR, WOODWARD ER, et al. Gastric vagotomy for peptic ulcer; complications and end results after 4 years. Proc Inst Med Chic. 1947 Jun 15;16(15):425. PubMed PMID: 20250413.

183: BINGHAM JA. Causalgia of the face; two cases successfully treated by sympathectomy. Br Med J. 1947 Jun 7;1(4509):804. PubMed PMID: 20240904; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2053594.

184: NEWELL JL, SMITHWICK RH. Pregnancy following lumbodorsal splanchnicectomy for essential and malignant hypertension and hypertension associated with chronic pyelonephritis. N Engl J Med. 1947 Jun 5;236(23):851-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM194706052362301. PubMed PMID: 20241256.

185: HEMPHILL RE. Prefrontal leucotomy. Med Press. 1947 Jun 4;217(23):480-2. PubMed PMID: 20242989.

186: BRAUTIGAM H. [Not Available]. Dtsch Med Rundsch. 1947 Jun;1(6):185-7. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20269582.

187: ROBLES C, BENAVIDES PH. [Not Available]. Arch Inst Cardiol Mex. 1947 Jun;17(3):406-26. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20259042.

188: PILCHER C, MEACHAM WF, HOLBROOK TJ. Partial excision of the motor cortex in treatment of jacksonian convulsions; results in 41 cases. Arch Surg. 1947 Jun;54(6):633-43. PubMed PMID: 20254813.

189: CRAFTS RC, WALKER BS. The effects of hypophysectomy on gastric acidity of adult female rats. Endocrinology. 1947 Jun;40(6):395-402. PubMed PMID: 20253387.

190: WHITAKER CF Jr, JUERS AL, SHAMBAUGH GE Jr. A modified endaural incision with nerve block anesthesia for fenestration and mastoidectomy. Arch Otolaryngol. 1947 Jun;45(6):662-7. PubMed PMID: 20252690.

191: VANZANT FR. The late restoration of gastric acidity after thoracic vagotomy in the dog. Gastroenterology. 1947 Jun;8(6):768-73. PubMed PMID: 20251631.

192: BERTRAND C. [Not Available]. Union Med Can. 1947 Jun;76(6):704-10. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20250798.

193: DENNIS C, EDDY FD. Evaluation of vagotomy in chronic, non-specific ulcerative colitis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1947 Jun;65(2):306. PubMed PMID: 20250470.

194: VAGOTOMY for peptic ulcer. Calif Med. 1947 Jun;66(6):372. PubMed PMID: 20244755.

195: HAWKES CD. Prefrontal lobotomy. Memphis Med J. 1947 Jun;22(6):95. PubMed PMID: 20243037.

196: TODD CE Jr. Vagotomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer. J Med Assoc Ga. 1947 Jun;36(6):228-31. PubMed PMID: 20242851.

197: PREFONTAL lobotomy for the relief of unbearable pain. Ann Intern Med. 1947 Jun;26(6):948-50. PubMed PMID: 20242664.

198: REITMAN F. Observations on personality changes after leukotomy. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1947 Jun;105(6):582-9. PubMed PMID: 20241657.

199: LIU CT, LEWEY FH. The effect of surging currents of low frequency in man on atrophy of denervated muscles. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1947 Jun;105(6):571-81. PubMed PMID: 20241656.

200: POPPEN JL. Extensive combined thoracolumbar sympathectomy in hypertension. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1947 Jun;84(6):1117-23. PubMed PMID: 20240244.

201: HURT JH. Prefrontal leucotomy. Med J Aust. 1947 May 24;1(21):638-40. PubMed PMID: 20248407.

202: WALTERS W. Vagotomy for peptic ulcer; anatomic and surgical consideration. Bull Chic Med Soc. 1947 May 10;49(45):674-6. PubMed PMID: 20253741.

203: RIENHOFF WF Jr, BAKER BM. Pancreolithiasis and chronic pancreatitis; preliminary report of a case of apparently successful treatment by transthoracic sympathectomy and vagectomy. J Am Med Assoc. 1947 May 3;134(1):20. PubMed PMID: 20293022.

204: STAFFORD DE. Modern concepts of neurosurgical treatment of herniated nucleus pulposus. Northwest Med. 1947 May;46(5):358-60. PubMed PMID: 20296613.

205: HAYNES WG, GRAHAM SE. Neurosurgical relief of intractable pain. J Med Assoc State Ala. 1947 May;16(11):364-9. PubMed PMID: 20296467.

206: RECTOR EW. Evaluation of the basal vascular tone test as an indication for sympathectomy in the treatment of surgical lesions of the major arteries. Surgery. 1947 May;21(5):630-5. PubMed PMID: 20295770.

207: SELVERSTONE B. Trigeminal neuralgia; its present status in dental and neurological surgery. Am J Orthod. 1947 May;33(5):388-94. PubMed PMID: 20294236.

208: KNOWLTON GC. Retarding denervation atrophy. South Med J. 1947 May;40(5):432-5. PubMed PMID: 20293294.

209: HAMILTON GT. Results of sympathectomy in the upper limb. Ulster Med J. 1947 May;16(1):18-26. PubMed PMID: 20254314; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2479334.

210: HAXTON HA. The results of sympathectomy. Ulster Med J. 1947 May;16(1):13-7. PubMed PMID: 20254313; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2479328.

211: BISGARD JD, SWENSON SA Jr. Bilateral lobectomy for bilateral bronchiectasis. Arch Surg. 1947 May;54(5):483-90. PubMed PMID: 20249223.

212: POSTLETHWAIT RW, HESSER FH, et al. Effects of drugs on gastric motility following vagotomy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1947 May;65(1):95-7. PubMed PMID: 20243133.

213: SCOTT M. Parkinsonian-like tremor and cogwheel rigidity in a child secondary to massive ependymoma of the frontal lobe and the caudate nucleus; prefrontal lobectomy, with cessation of tremor and rigidity. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1947 May;57(5):649-54. PubMed PMID: 20241630.

214: BERNE CJ. Vagotomy. Ann West Med Surg. 1947 May;1(3):132. PubMed PMID: 20240849.

215: KAO HWANG, ESSEX HE, MANN FC. A study of certain problems resulting from vagotomy in dogs with special reference to emesis. Am J Physiol. 1947 May;149(2):429-48. PubMed PMID: 20239973.

216: RICHTER CP. Cutaneous areas denervated by upper thoracic and stellate ganglionectomies determined by the electrical skin resistance method. J Neurosurg. 1947 May;4(3):221-32. PubMed PMID: 20239781.

217: WAGNER RJ. Vagotomy for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Marquette Med Rev. 1947 May;12(3):147-54. PubMed PMID: 20239115.

218: BIRCHALL R, TAYLOR RD, et al. Clinical studies of the pharmacologic effects of tetraethyl ammonium chloride in hypertensive persons made in an attempt to select patients suitable for lumbodorsal sympathectomy and ganglionectomy. Am J Med Sci. 1947 May;213(5):572-8. PubMed PMID: 20238897.

219: HARMEL MH, VANDAM LD, LAMONT A. An attempt to prolong sympathetic block with bromsalizol in polyethylene glycol. Anesthesiology. 1947 May;8(3):266-9. PubMed PMID: 20238503.

220: BLEGEN HM, KINTNER AR. Aggravation of a gastric ulcer following dorsolumbar sympathectomy. J Am Med Assoc. 1947 Apr 19;133(16):1207. PubMed PMID: 20291499.

221: LAGERLOF H. Choledochal denervation in biliary dyskinesia; a report of 15 cases studied by induced changes of the serum amylase and bilirubin (a morphine-secretin test). Acta Chir Scand. 1947 Apr 19;95(4):297-306. PubMed PMID: 20240143.

222: LAZORTHES G. [Not Available]. Presse Med. 1947 Apr 19;55(23):271. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18918067.

223: PATEL J. [Not Available]. Presse Med. 1947 Apr 19;55(23):262. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18918064.

224: [Not Available]. Praxis. 1947 Apr 17;36(16):281. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20241409.

225: SHUMACKER HB Jr. Sympathetic interruption in cases of trauma and in posttraumatic states. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1947 Apr 15;84(4-A):739-49. PubMed PMID: 20292172.

226: ETCHEGOYAN JC. [Not Available]. Prensa Med Argent. 1947 Apr 11;34(15):670. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20243062.

227: FRIEH, VACHON R. [Not Available]. Lyon Med. 1947 Apr 4;179(14):243. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18934907.

228: SEDDON HJ. [Not Available]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 1947 Apr;79(4):261. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20341049.

229: JEFFRIES EO, WILSON JH. Surgery of the spinal cord; special emphasis on the nursing care pre-operatively and post-operatively. Trained Nurse Hosp Rev. 1947 Apr;118(4):279-86. PubMed PMID: 20295341.

230: FREEMAN W, WATTS JW. Schizophrenia in childhood; its modification by prefrontal lobotomy. Abstr Translat Sci Library. 1947 Apr;15:202-19. PubMed PMID: 20295268.

231: MYERSON A, MYERSON PG. Prefrontal lobotomy or leucotomy. Abstr Translat Sci Library. 1947 Apr;15:200. PubMed PMID: 20295267.

232: WOLF S, ANDRUS WD. The effect of vagotomy on gastric function. Gastroenterology. 1947 Apr;8(4):429-34. PubMed PMID: 20294360.

233: WEINSTEIN VA, COLP R. Supradiaphragmatic vagotomy in gastrojejunal ulceration following subtotal gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer. Surg Clin North Am. 1947 Apr;27:249-53. PubMed PMID: 20293900.

234: COHEN M. Ophthalmoscopic changes associated with hypertensive vascular disease as a guide to sympathectomy. Arch Ophthal. 1947 Apr;37(4):491-6. PubMed PMID: 20293690.

235: EWALD FR, FREEMAN W, WATTS JW. Psychosurgery; the nursing problem. Am J Nurs. 1947 Apr;47(4):210-3. PubMed PMID: 20293651.

236: OBRADOR S. Temporal lobotomy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1947 Apr;6(2):185-93. PubMed PMID: 20293600.

237: KIRKHAM JH. Nerve suture. Postgrad Med J. 1947 Apr;23(258):190-2. PubMed PMID: 20293169; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2529522.

238: ANDERSON FM. Recent advances in neurosurgery. West J Surg Obstet Gynecol. 1947 Apr;55(4):245-52. PubMed PMID: 20292202.

239: KRONTIRIS A. Experiences with sympathectomy for sequelae of trench feet. Ann Surg. 1947 Apr;125(4):505-7. PubMed PMID: 20292107.

240: KENNARD MA, HAMPEL CW, WILLNER MD. Effect of frontal lobectomy on blood sugars of normal cats and monkeys and adrenal denervated cats. Am J Physiol. 1947 Apr;149(1):246-53. PubMed PMID: 20291968.

241: GROSSMAN MI, CUMMINS GM, IVY AC. The effect of insulin on food intake after vagotomy and sympathectomy. Am J Physiol. 1947 Apr;149(1):100-2. PubMed PMID: 20291951.

242: CRILE G Jr. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy; indications and technic. Cleve Clin Q. 1947 Apr;14(2):65-75. PubMed PMID: 20291347.

243: NESBIT RM. Anterolateral chordotomy for refractory interstitial cystitis with intractable pain. J Urol. 1947 Apr;57(4):741-5. PubMed PMID: 20290728.

244: SAMSON PC, BURFORD TH. Total pulmonary decortication; its evolution and present concepts of indications and operative technique. J Thorac Surg. 1947 Apr;16(2):127-53. PubMed PMID: 20290609.

245: TUTTLE WM, LANGSTON HT, CROWLEY RT. The treatment of organizing hemothorax by pulmonary decortication. J Thorac Surg. 1947 Apr;16(2):117-26; discussion 146-53. PubMed PMID: 20290608.

246: GOVAN WR. Some observations on vagotomy for peptic ulcer with a discussion of three selected cases. Manit Med Rev. 1947 Apr;27(4):220-3. PubMed PMID: 20289904.

247: HUTTON EL. Contra-indications for leucotomy; whom not to leucotomize. J Ment Sci. 1947 Apr;93(391):333-41. PubMed PMID: 20265898.

248: GOINARD P, DESCUNS, GARRE. [Not Available]. Alger Medicale. 1947 Apr;50(4):341-6. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20259427.

249: GRANT WT. Intracranial surgery. Med Arts Sci. 1947 Apr;1(1):30-2. PubMed PMID: 20257923.

250: DAVIS HA. A new surgical approach for vagotomy, diaphragmatic herniotomy, splenectomy, and operations upon the gastro-esophageal area through the left subdiaphragmatic extraperitoneal space; a preliminary anatomical study. Med Arts Sci. 1947 Apr;1(1):11-5. PubMed PMID: 20257920.

251: LAWSON RS. Observations on the treatment of nerve injuries, with an account of a new series of splints. Aust N Z J Surg. 1947 Apr;16(4):238-47. PubMed PMID: 20249231.

252: MACHELLA TE. Vagotomy and urecholine in the treatment of peptic ulcer; the pharmacologic restoration of gastric motility and the promotion of evacuation of the stomach after section of the vagus nerves for peptic ulcer. Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila. 1947 Apr;15(1):23-5. PubMed PMID: 20241508.

253: RUFFIN JM. Vagotomy and urecholine in the treatment of peptic ulcer; the treatment of peptic ulcer, with special reference to vagotomy. Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila. 1947 Apr;15(1):18-22. PubMed PMID: 20241507.

254: RUFFIN JM, MACHELLA TE. Vagotomy and urecholine in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila. 1947 Apr;15(1):19-25. PubMed PMID: 20241506.

255: BRIGGS H, KEATS S. Laminectomy and foraminotomy with chip fusion; operative treatment for the relief of low-back pain and sciatic pain associated with spondylolisthesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1947 Apr;29(2):328-34. PubMed PMID: 20240190.

256: FISCHER R. [Not Available]. Rev Med Suisse Romande. 1947 Mar 25;67(3):206. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20342233.

257: PREFRONTAL leucotomy. Br Med J. 1947 Mar 8;1(4496):300. PubMed PMID: 20246354; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2052537.

258: OLSON CK. Sympathectomy for peripheral vascular disease. Surg Staff Semin U S Veterans Adm Hosp Minneap. 1947 Mar 4;2(4):84-101. PubMed PMID: 20290613.

259: BRECKENRIDGE CG, KELLER AD. Immediate and permanent dwarfing with subsequent sexual development following near-ordinary hypophysectomy in three-months-old female puppy. Fed Proc. 1947 Mar;6(1 Pt 2):81. PubMed PMID: 20342508.

260: WILSON J. A half century of progress in brain surgery. Trained Nurse Hosp Rev. 1947 Mar;118(3):177-83. PubMed PMID: 20295336.

261: DRAPER PA. Prefrontal lobotomy in the treatment of schizophrenia. Dis Nerv Syst. 1947 Mar;8(3):77-80. PubMed PMID: 20295303.

262: MacLEAN JA. Neuro-surgical procedures for everyday practice. Westchest Med Bull. 1947 Mar;15(3):11-3. PubMed PMID: 20295144.

263: RAO CK. A follow-up study of first 50 pre-frontal leucotomy cases. Antiseptic. 1947 Mar;44(3):129-32. PubMed PMID: 20294535.

264: SHIPLEY EG, BEYER KH. The effect of vagotomy and of thoracic sympathectomy on the blood glucose changes in dogs given alloxan. Endocrinology. 1947 Mar;40(3):154-64. PubMed PMID: 20294402.

265: LOVE JG, GAY JR. Resection of the superior longitudinal sinus; report of case. J Neurosurg. 1947 Mar;4(2):182-8. PubMed PMID: 20293615.

266: WOODHALL B. Peripheral nerve injuries; basic data from the peripheral nerve registry concerning 7,050 nerve sutures and 67 nerve grafts. J Neurosurg. 1947 Mar;4(2):146-63. PubMed PMID: 20293611.

267: FINCHER EF. Further uses of gelatin foam in neurosorgery. J Neurosurg. 1947 Mar;4(2):97-104. PubMed PMID: 20293607.

268: LOWBEER L. Laminectomy. Staff Proc. 1947 Mar:12-5. PubMed PMID: 20293130.

269: BURDICK DL. Monocaine hydrochloride for nerve block procedures. Curr Res Anesth Analg. 1947 Mar-Apr;26(2):82-5. PubMed PMID: 20292326.

270: COCA AF. Sympathectomy as an antiallergic measure. Ann Allergy. 1947 Mar-Apr;5(2):95-101. PubMed PMID: 20292288.

271: HARKINS HN. The prevention of pyloric ligation-induced ulcers of the gastric rumen of rats by transabdominal vagotomy; a preliminary report. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1947 Mar;80(3):174-6. PubMed PMID: 20291306.

272: CRAFTS RC, WALKER BS. Effects of hypophysectomy upon gastric acidity of adult female rats. Anat Rec. 1947 Mar;97(3):327. PubMed PMID: 20289341.

273: WANG SC. The importance of the afferent nervous factor in experimental traumatic shock; the effect of chronic deafferentation. Am J Physiol. 1947 Mar;148(3):547-56. PubMed PMID: 20288801.

274: WATTS JW. Neurological surgery in Washington. Med Ann Dist Columbia. 1947 Mar;16(3):140. PubMed PMID: 20288326.

275: FREEMAN W, WATTS JW. Psychosurgery, 1936-1946. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1947 Mar;105(3):307-19. PubMed PMID: 20287657.

276: MORRISON WR. Transpleural bilateral vagotomy. Rev Gastroenterol. 1947 Mar;14(3):159-65. PubMed PMID: 20285138.

277: HENDRICK JW, AYCOCK TB. Sympathectomy for peripheral vascular disease. South Med J. 1947 Mar;40(3):219-28. PubMed PMID: 20284219.

278: DAVILLA M. [Not Available]. Rev Sanid Polic. 1947 Mar-Apr;7(39):135-71. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20253445.

279: ALCERRO CASTRO R. [Not Available]. Rev Med Hondur. 1947 Mar-Apr;16(129):397-400. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20252267.

280: GREENHILL JP. Relief of pelvic pain by sympathectomy and intraspinal alcohol injections. J Int Coll Surg. 1947 Mar-Apr;10(2):218-22. PubMed PMID: 20242187.

281: MEYER A, BECK E, McLARDY T. Prefrontal leucotomy; a neuro-anatomical report. Brain. 1947 Mar;70(1):18-49. PubMed PMID: 20241634.

282: PASCUAL del RONCAL F. [Not Available]. Rev Med. 1947 Mar;2(3):279-91. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20239497.

283: PEET MM. Results of bilateral supradiaphragmatic splanchnicectomy for arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1947 Feb 20;236(8):270-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJM194702202360802. PubMed PMID: 20288374.

284: de TAKATS G, EVOY MH. Sympathectomy for peripheral vascular sclerosis. J Am Med Assoc. 1947 Feb 15;133(7):441-5. PubMed PMID: 20283951.

285: PENDERGRASS RC, ALLBRITTEN FF Jr. Pulmonary complications of dorsal sympathectomy. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther. 1947 Feb;57(2):205-12. PubMed PMID: 20288985.

286: FREEMAN W, WATTS JW. Retrograde degeneration of the thalamus following prefrontal lobotomy. J Comp Neurol. 1947 Feb;86(1):65-93. PubMed PMID: 20285735.

287: THOMSON JL. Neurosurgical complications of injuries about the head and face. Va Med Mon (1918). 1947 Feb;74(2):63-6. PubMed PMID: 20285525.

288: VORIS HC. Sympathectomy in peripheral vascular disease and hypertension. Surg Clin North Am. 1947 Feb;27(1):139-52. PubMed PMID: 20284755.

289: RAAB W, MAES JP. Effect of sympathectomy without and with adrenal inactivation on the concentration of epinephrine and related compounds in various tissues. Am J Physiol. 1947 Feb;148(2):470-7. PubMed PMID: 20284571.

290: MEAD S. Some properties of denervated muscle; the relation of fibrillation to acetylcholine. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1947 Feb;28(2):93-9. PubMed PMID: 20283423.

291: TRACY, DUNSKY, GIBSON. Intermittent cough [bronchiectasis; lobectomy]. Case Rep Child Meml Hosp Chic. 1947 Feb;6(2):746-8. PubMed PMID: 20245439.

292: PELAZ E. [Not Available]. Actual Medica. 1947 Feb;33(266):111. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20244574.

293: HOOBLER SW, MOE GK, et al. The effect of autonomic blockade with tetraethylammonium on the renal circulation in dogs and in normal and hypertensive patients. Univ Hosp Bull. 1947 Feb;13(2):9. PubMed PMID: 20241517.

294: DISCUSSION: LEUCOTOMY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF RESEARCH. Proc R Soc Med. 1947 Feb;40(4):141-50. PubMed PMID: 19993475; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2182626.

295: Shumacker HB Jr, Abramson DI. Sympathectomy in Trench Foot. Ann Surg. 1947 Feb;125(2):203-15. PubMed PMID: 17858925; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1803165.

296: BRAGDON FH. Prefrontal lobotomy. Ment Health Bull. 1947 Jan 15;24(4):29-33. PubMed PMID: 20284582.

297: NICKERSON M. Site of the adrenergic blocking action of dibenamine. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1):360. PubMed PMID: 20343752.

298: YOUMANS WB, GOOD HV, HEWITT AF. Regulation of heart rate after chronic sino-aortic denervation. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1 Pt 2):231. PubMed PMID: 20342932.

299: SNAPE WJ. The response of the gall bladder to various stimuli before and after vagotomy. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1 Pt 2):206. PubMed PMID: 20342872.

300: SHAY H, KOMAROV SA, GRUENSTEIN M. Studies on the effects of vagotomy in rats. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1 Pt 2):199. PubMed PMID: 20342857.

301: PERKINS JF Jr, LI MC. A sudden fall in the skin temperature of enervated or sympathectomized paws exposed to cold. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1 Pt 2):178. PubMed PMID: 20342810.

302: HARKINS HN, ELLIOTT SR 2nd. The influence of vagotomy on ulceration of the gastric rumen of rats following pyloric ligation. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1 Pt 2):123. PubMed PMID: 20342684.

303: ROTH RR. Lumbar sympathectomy in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases with case report of results in Buerger's disease. Miss Doct. 1947 Jan;24(8):218-22. PubMed PMID: 20291568.

304: McNICKLE HF. The surgical treatment of hydrocephalus; a simple method of performing third ventriculostomy. Br J Surg. 1947 Jan;34(135):302-7. PubMed PMID: 20289122.

305: TITRUD LA. A successful autogenous graft for radial nerve paralysis; case report. J Neurosurg. 1947 Jan;4(1):92-5. PubMed PMID: 20287668.

306: NORCROSS NC, BAKODY JT. Observations on the use of tantalum foil in peripheral nerve surgery. J Neurosurg. 1947 Jan;4(1):69-71. PubMed PMID: 20287664.

307: DREW JH, KOOP CE, GRIGGER RP. A nutritional study of neurosurgical patients; with special reference to nitrogen balance and convalescence in the postoperative period. J Neurosurg. 1947 Jan;4(1):7-15. PubMed PMID: 20287660.

308: LEWIS ND. General clinical psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine and psychosurgery. Am J Psychiatry. 1947 Jan;103(4):535-8. PubMed PMID: 20287573.

309: LAHEY FH. A position on the employment of vagotomy in the surgical treatment of peptic ulcer. Lahey Clin Bull. 1947 Jan;5(3):66-9. PubMed PMID: 20287140.

310: APPLEBY LH. Vagotomy. Bull Vanc Med Assoc. 1947 Jan;23(4):84-6. PubMed PMID: 20286933.

311: SKOVRON M. An improved retractor for intervertebral-disc surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1947 Jan;29(1):247. PubMed PMID: 20284708.

312: MOORE RA, WILSON J. Herniation of the nucleus pulposa; laminectomy with spinal fusion. Trained Nurse Hosp Rev. 1947 Jan;118(1):25-8. PubMed PMID: 20280280.

313: ECKER A. Early nerve suture. Mil Surg. 1947 Jan;100(1):14-24. PubMed PMID: 20279032.

314: TAYLOR RD, BIRCHALL R, et al. Circulatory responses to spinal and caudal anesthesia in hypertension; relation to the effect of sympathectomy; effect on arterial pressure. Proc Annu Meet Cent Soc Clin Res U S. 1947;20:89. PubMed PMID: 20272851.

315: CORCORAN AC, TAYLOR RD, PAGE IH. Circulatory responses to spinal and caudal anesthesia in hypertension; relation to the effect of sympathectomy; effect of renal function. Proc Annu Meet Cent Soc Clin Res U S. 1947;20:30. PubMed PMID: 20272792.

316: PAESI FJ. The Collip effect in hypophysectomized animals. Acta Brevia Neerl Physiol Pharmacol Microbiol E A. 1947;15(1):8-11. PubMed PMID: 20270952.

317: SERVANTIE L, CAMPAR R, et al. [Not Available]. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1947 Jan;141(1-2):81-3. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20268223.

318: GREEN M. Interrupted anaesthesia in certain neurosurgical procedures. Anaesthesia. 1947 Jan;2(1):34-6. PubMed PMID: 20266328.

319: LABORIT H. [Not Available]. Rev Med Nav Metrop O-M. 1947;2(1):51-3. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20263915.

320: FREEMAN W, WATTS JW. Psychosurgery. Prog Neurol Psychiatry. 1947;2:461-72. PubMed PMID: 20261869.

321: WALKER AE, HOPPLE TL. Surgical treatment of motor and sensory disturbances. Prog Neurol Psychiatry. 1947;2:342-7. PubMed PMID: 20261859.

322: PILCHER C, MEACHAM WF. Surgical infections of the brain and its coverings. Prog Neurol Psychiatry. 1947;2:318-26. PubMed PMID: 20261857.

323: SCOTT M. Surgery of the spinal cord. Prog Neurol Psychiatry. 1947;2:289-307. PubMed PMID: 20261855.

324: NICOLOSI G. [Not Available]. Minerva Chir. 1947 Jan;2(1):7-9. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20254921.

325: ZHMUR VA. [Report on the VIIIth scientific session of the All-Union Neurosurgical Council and the Leningrad Neurosurgical Institute, 25-28 January 1947]. Khirurgiia (Mosk). 1947;(5):88-96. Russian. PubMed PMID: 20254919.

326: NURASHOV IK. [Surgical aid in cranio-cerebral wounds]. Gosp Delo. 1947;(1):21-4. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20252444.

327: KRIVOPUSK PT. [Remote results of surgical treatment of peripheral nerves]. Gosp Delo. 1947;(4):37-41. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20250877.

328: STEIN IF Jr, STEIGMANN F, MEYER KA. Studies of gastric motility on ulcer patients before and after vagotomy; effect of parasympathomimetic drugs. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1):374. PubMed PMID: 20249619.

329: PIAGET J, INHELDER B. Diagnosis of mental operations and theory of the intelligence. Am J Ment Defic. 1947 Jan;51(3):401-6. PubMed PMID: 20248911.

330: SEWELL S. Cervical sympathectomy in relation to cardiac pain, and unilateral headache. Proc R Australas Coll Physicians. 1947 Jan;2(1):21-8. PubMed PMID: 20248596.

331: ANSELMINO. [Not Available]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1947;69(1):95. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20246068.

332: BORRELL NAVARRO E. [Not Available]. Bol Col Med La Habana. 1947 Jan;10(1):20. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20244661.

333: STAVRAKY GW, DRAKE CG. An extension of the law of denervation to afferent neurones. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1 Pt 2):211. PubMed PMID: 20244263.

334: OLIVER AG, KELLER AD. The immediate effects of varying degrees of hypophysectomy in the previously pancreatized dog. Fed Proc. 1947;6(1 Pt 2):172. PubMed PMID: 20244224.

335: VAN DER LINDEN P. [Not Available]. Acta Chir Belg. 1947 Jan;(1):35-53. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20242142.

336: REITMAN F. The creative spell of schizophrenics after leucotomy. J Ment Sci. 1947 Jan;93(390):55-61. PubMed PMID: 20239755.

337: HUTTON EL. Personality changes after leucotomy. J Ment Sci. 1947 Jan;93(390):31-42. PubMed PMID: 20239753.

338: ZORRAQUIN G, ZORRAQUIN G. [Not Available]. Sem Med. 1947;54(3):61-5. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 20239588.

339: GERKE PJ. [The cutting through of milk teeth following denervation]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1947;3(1):8-13. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18920821.

340: ROGERS L. Neurosurgery in the Royal Navy; an outline of the development and work of the Naval Neurosurgical Unit. Br J Surg. 1947;55(Suppl 1):90-5. PubMed PMID: 18918454.

341: GILLINGHAM FJ. Neurosurgical experiences in Northern Italy. Br J Surg. 1947;55(Suppl 1):80-7. PubMed PMID: 18918452.

342: CAIRNS H. Neurosurgery in the British Army, 1939-1945. Br J Surg. 1947;55(Suppl 1):9-26. PubMed PMID: 18918448.

343: WILKINS RW, CULBERTSON JW. The effects of surgical sympathectomy upon certain vasopressor responses in hypertensive patients. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1947;60(1 vol):195-207. PubMed PMID: 18917260.

344: MACHELLA TE, HODGES HH, LORBER SH. The pharmacologic restoration of gastric motility and the promotion of evacuation of the stomach after section of the vagus nerves for peptic ulcer. Proc Am Fed Clin Res. 1947;3:67. PubMed PMID: 18909339.

345: WOLF S, ANDRUS WD. The effect of vagotomy on gastric function as determined in a fistulous human subject. Proc Am Fed Clin Res. 1947;3:66. PubMed PMID: 18909338.

346: BIRCHALL R, TAYLOR RD, et al. Clinical studies of the pharmacological effects of tetraethyl ammonium chloride in hypertensive persons made in an attempt to select patients suitable for lumbodorsal sympathectomy and ganglionectomy. Proc Am Fed Clin Res. 1947;3(1 Vol):21. PubMed PMID: 18908364.

347: TALBOT G. Alternative operations to corneo-scleral trephining in treatment of glaucoma. Trans Ophthalmol Soc N Z. 1947;1 conf:37. PubMed PMID: 18896810.

348: BERTOCCHI A. [Not Available]. P V Expo Discuss Congr Soc Int Chir. 1947-1948;12 Congr. (1 vol.):816. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 18107265.

349: GARDNER CE Jr, HART D. The surgical treatment of peptic ulcer; a comparison of the results of gastro-enterostomy, gastric resection and vagotomy at the Duke Hospital. Trans South Surg Assoc. 1947-1948;59 (1 vol.):359-69. PubMed PMID: 18105759.

350: YEAGER GH, COWLEY RA. Anatomical observations on the lumbar sympathetics with evaluation of sympathectomies in organic peripheral vascular disease. Trans South Surg Assoc. 1947-1948;59 (1 vol.):214-28. PubMed PMID: 18105751.

Gildenberg PL. Spiegel and Wycis - the early years. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2001;77(1-4):11-6. PubMed PMID: 12378049.
Rizzoli H V, Hayes G J. Congenital berry aneurysm of the posterior fossa; case report with successful operative excision. J Neurosurg. 1953;10(05):550–551.
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