In 1958, four visionary Swiss surgeons shared a common goal: to conduct research into bone healing within a structured, coordinated study group. It was effectively the birth of the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen—literally translated, “working group for bone fusion issues”).
Year over year, its scope has expanded to keep pace with rapid developments in musculoskeletal surgery and patient care, and in 1984 the AO Foundation was formally established.
In 1958 Gillingham popularized wrapping with cotton or muslin 2). An analysis of 60 patients showed that 8.5% rebled in ≤ 6 mos, and the annual rebleeding rate was 1.5% thereafter 3) (similar to the natural history)