Mannitol was introduced into clinical use in 1961 1).

Basilar bifurcation aneurysm were considered inoperable until Charles George Drake reported 4 cases in 1961 2) , with larger series reported later 3).

In 1961 Margolis et al. proved through autopsy sectioning of 4 fatal intracranial hematomas that microarteriovenous malformations could act as sources of hemorrhage 4).

In 1961, Fairbanks-Barbosa was the first to report an infratemporal fossa (ITF) approach, indicated for advanced tumors of the maxillary sinus 5).

By 1961, a review of the literature of cerebral hemispherectomy revealed 269 reported cases, with an operative mortality of 6.6% 6).

The first independent International Neurosurgical Congress in 1961 in Washington D.C. The nominating proposed the slate for the next Congress and the coming four years. This slate was accepted unanimously with Paul C. Bucy as president and Bronson Ray as secretary.

The interim meeting was held in Copenhagen. Dr. James White, chairman of the program committee presented the following topics:

1) radioactivity and heavy radiation particles in neurosurgery,

2) re-evaluation of surgery in the treatment of pain,

3) space occupying lesions of the central nervous system,

4) management of hydrocephalus and

5) biology and chemistry of the nervous system.

There was a closed television set with the operating room in the John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. Via a panel it was possible to discuss with the surgeons in Baltimore during the surgical procedure. On October 15, 1961 the president officially opened the Congress with the words, that this was the first independent Neurosurgical Congress. There was also a warm and wholeheartedly welcome from the President John F. Kennedy.

see 1961 publications.

Wise BL, Chater N: Use of hypertonic mannitol solutions to lower cerebrospinal fluid pressure and decrease brain bulk in man. Surg Forum 1961; 12:398–399
Drake CG. Bleeding Aneurysms of the Basilar Artery: Direct Surgical Management in Four Cases. J Neurosurg. 1961; 18:230–238
Drake CG. Further Experience with Surgical Treat- ment of Aneurysms of the Basilar Artery. J Neurosurg. 1968; 29:372–392
MARGOLIS G, ODOM GL, WOODHALL B. Further experiences with small vascular malformations as a cause of massive intracerebral bleeding. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1961 Jan;20:161-7. PubMed PMID: 13766688.
Barbosa JF. Surgery of extensive cancer of paranasal sinuses. Presentation of a new technique. Arch Otolaryngol. Feb 1961;73:129-38.
White HH: Cerebral hemispherectomy in the treatment of infantile hemiplegia; review of the literature and report of two cases. Confin Neurol 21:1–50, 1961
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