1. intracranial abnormalities
2. CT evidence of increased ICP as demonstrated by a) midline shift (MLS) >5mm and/or
b) compression of basal cisterns
3. presence or absence of mass lesions (contusions/hemorrhages)
4. planned evacuation of mass lesions
CBTRUS was established in 1992 to provide descriptive statistical data on all primary brain tumors. The database contains the largest collection of incidence data in the United States for primary brain and central nervous system tumors.
Dickman et al., from Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville published in 1992, that the approximate mediolateral trajectory for the open lumbar pedicle screw technique equals the lumbar vertebral number multiplied by 5 º for each level from L1 to L5 2).
EOS is a medical imaging system whose aim is to provide frontal and lateral radiography images, while limiting the X-ray dose absorbed by the patient in a sitting or standing position. The system relies on the high sensitivity of a detector (multi-wire chamber) invented by Georges Charpak (which gave him the 1992 Nobel prize).
EOS is commercialized by the French company EOS imaging as an orthopedic application whose main feature is the 3D visualization of the vertebral column and/or lower limbs of the patients.