Brantigan and Steffee 1) combined interbody fusion with pedicle screw/plate stabilization of the lumbar spine in 1993.

In 1993 Engelbert Knosp et al. offered the Knosp grade system for showing invasion of cavernous sinus by pituitary macroadenoma. Briefly, the much laterally adenoma grows and surrounds the internal carotid artery (ICA), the more grade level is. The grading defined by the relation of carotid lines with the limits of invasion. These lines passes through supra- and intracavernous internal carotid artery in coronal view. There are medial, median and lateral carotid lines 2).

The first edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was published in 1979 and took almost a decade to complete.

The second edition followed in 1993 and was considered a great step forward as it incorporated the advances in classification resulting from the introduction of immunohistochemistry.

Biallelic inactivation of the NF2 gene has been established as the principal underlying genetic event in patients with sporadic and syndrome-associated vestibular schwannoma (VS). Two independent teams contemporaneously identified the NF2 gene located on chromosome 22 at 22q12.2 in 1993, which codes for the tumor suppressor protein Merlin, also called schwannomin

The NF2 gene provides instructions for the production of a protein called merlin, also known as schwannomin 3) 4).

Brantigan JW, Steffee AD. A carbon fiber implant to aid interbody lumbar fusion. Two-year clinical results in the first 26 patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1993;18:2106ā€“7.
Knosp E, Steiner E, Kitz K, Matula C. Pituitary adenomas with invasion of the cavernous sinus space: a magnetic resonance imaging classification compared with surgical findings. Neurosurgery. 1993 Oct;33(4):610-7; discussion 617-8. PubMed PMID: 8232800.
Rouleau GA, Merel P, Lutchman M, et al. Alteration in a new gene encoding a putative membrane-organizing protein causes neurofibromatosis type 2. Nature 1993;363:515ā€“21.
Trofatter JA, MacCollin MM, Rutter JL, et al. A novel moesin-, ezrin-, radixin-like gene is a candidate for the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor. Cell 1993;72:791ā€“800.
  • 1993.txt
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