In 2000 Stummer et al published that Five-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-derived fluorescence was approved for fluorescence-guided resections of malignant gliomas, relying on selective synthesis and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) within malignant glioma cells 1).
In 1995, the Brain Trauma Foundation developed the first TBI Guidelines with the assistance of a group of international experts in the field. The goal was to offer the latest research on which to build protocols that would improve the survival and outcomes of TBI patients. With the publication of the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Head Injury, the benchmark for evidence-based guidelines in Neurosurgery and other surgical specialties was set. These Guidelines were updated in 2000 under the title Management and Prognosis of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury with the addition of a new section entitled Early Indicators of Prognosis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the World Health Organization’s Committee on Neurotrauma have endorsed each document, joined by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and AANS/CNS Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care.
Primary intracranial diseases were initially reported in 1987 and subsequently, defined as a distinct CNS neoplasm in 1996 and added to the World Health Organization (WHO) Brain Tumor Classification in 2000 (grade IV).
The ODI is a 10-item score from 0 to 100 that encompasses limitations in activity, sleeping, social life, work, and personal care resulting from low back pain. Higher scores indicate more severe disability.