Cilostazol, an antiplatelet drug that inhibits phosphodiesterase 3, is beneficial for patients with atherothrombosis. In contrast to other anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin and thienopyridines, little information is available on the relationship between platelet responses to cilostazol and clinical outcomes.
Ikeda et al. from the Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan, conducted a prospective study on patients with cerebral infarction who were treated with cilostazol. The platelet response to cilostazol was assessed with a new assay for the phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) subsequent to the pharmacological action of cilostazol. Patients were followed up for 2 years and the relationship between VASP assay results and the recurrence of thrombotic events was examined. We also investigated the effects of CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 genotypes involved in the metabolism of cilostazol on the platelet response to cilostazol.
Among the 142 patients enrolled, 130 completed the 2-year follow-up and the recurrence of thrombotic events was noted in 8 (6.2%). VASP phosphorylation levels were significantly lower in patients with than in those without recurrence. The combined genotype of CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP2C19*1/*1 was associated with a low level of VASP phosphorylation, while either genotype was not. A multivariate analysis showed that high residual platelet reactivity during the cilostazol treatment, which was defined by a low response of platelet VASP phosphorylation to cilostazol, was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of thrombotic events.
A low platelet response to cilostazol determined by a new platelet assay was associated with the recurrence of thrombotic events in patients with cerebral infarction 1).
Miura et al. investigated the efficacy of a combined approach with stent retriever-assisted aspiration catheter for distal intracranial vessel occlusion (distal combined technique: DCT).
They evaluated consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients with distal occlusion in anterior circulation, including occlusions of the M2/M3 or A2/A3 segment, who received endovascular therapy (EVT) in a single center. Modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infraction [mTICI] score including TICI 2c category, processing time from puncture to reperfusion, proportion of a favorable clinical outcome at discharge (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] ≤ 2), and incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) were compared between the DCT and single device approach technique (non-DCT) groups.
Of 65 patients, 28 were treated with DCT and 37 with EVT for non-DCT. In the DCT group, a higher reperfusion rate at the first pass (mTICI ≥ 2b, 92% vs. 54%, p=0.0008; mTICI ≥ 2c, 71% vs. 16%, p < 0.0001; mTICI3 57% vs. 14%, p=0.0004) and shorter time from puncture to successful reperfusion (median 31 min. vs. 43 min., p=0.0006) were achieved. The final successful reperfusion rate was also higher in the DCT group than in the non-DCT group (mTICI ≥ 2c, 85% vs. 51% p=0.004; mTICI3, 75% vs. 43%, p=0.012). sICH occurred in two patients in the non-DCT group. Patients with mRS ≤ 2 at discharge were more prevalent in the DCT than in the non-DCT group (57% vs. 27% p=0.021).
This retrospective analysis indicated that DCT is a useful and safe strategy for patients with distal anterior intracranial vessel occlusion.
retrospective study reviewed data from consecutive patients with AIS and an occluded M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery who underwent pretreatment perfusion CT between May 2009 and August 2017. The maximum cerebral blood flow (CBF) of collateral vessels (cCBFmax) within the Sylvian fissure was calculated for each patient. Good outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin scale score of 0-2. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between cCBFmax and (a) hemorrhagic transformation and (b) clinical outcome.
The final analysis included 204 patients (median age, 73 years; interquartile range, 62-80 years; 82 [40.2%] women). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that higher cCBFmax was an independent predictor for (a) a lower risk of hemorrhagic transformation (odds ratio [OR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 1.00; P = .009) after adjusting for baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), endovascular thrombectomy, baseline infarct core volume, and recanalization and (b) better outcome (OR, 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03; P = .001) after adjusting for age, baseline NIHSS score, endovascular thrombectomy, hypertension, baseline infarct core volume, and recanalization, respectively.
The measurement of maximum cerebral blood flow of collateral vessels within the Sylvian fissure is a feasible quantitative collateral assessment at perfusion CT. Maximum cerebral blood flow of collateral vessels was associated with clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. 2).
Nozoe et al., from the Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Nursing and Rehabilitation, Konan Women's University, Kobe, Department of Rehabilitation, Neurosurgical Hospital, Itami, Japan, compared the heart rate variability (HRV) during early mobilization in patients with or without neurological deterioration (ND). They enrolled 7 acute ischemic patients with ND and 14 without ND and measured their HRV in the rest and mobilization by electrocardiography. There was a significant difference in sympathetic nervous activity during mobilization between the 2 groups. However, no significant differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and parasympathetic nerve activity were observed. In patients with acute ischemic stroke, it is likely that the increase in sympathetic nervous activity during mobilization is associated with ND 3).