A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10, also known as ADAM10 or CDw156 or CD156c is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADAM10 gene.
Members of the ADAM family are cell surface proteins with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. Sheddase, a generic name for the ADAM metallopeptidase, functions primarily to cleave membrane proteins at the cellular surface. Once cleaved, the sheddases release soluble ectodomains with an altered location and function.
Although a single sheddase may “shed” a variety of substances, multiple sheddases can cleave the same substrate resulting in different consequences.This gene encodes an ADAM family member that cleaves many proteins including TNF-alpha and E-cadherin.
In a study, Sanz et al. identified a metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism necessary to promote growth in embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs). Treatment of embryonic DRG neurons with pan-metalloproteinase inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, or an inhibitor of ADAM Metallopeptidase Domain 10 (ADAM10) reduces outgrowth from DRG neurons indicating that metalloproteinase activity is important for outgrowth.
The IgLON family members Neurotrimin (NTM) and Limbic System-Associated Membrane Protein (LSAMP) were identified as ADAM10 substrates that are shed from the cell surface of Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Overexpression of LSAMP and NTM suppresses outgrowth from DRG neurons. Furthermore, LSAMP loss of function decreases the outgrowth sensitivity to an ADAM10 inhibitor. Together this findings support a role for ADAM-dependent shedding of cell surface LSAMP in promoting outgrowth from DRG neurons 1).