User Tools

Site Tools


adrenocorticotropic_hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete steroid hormones, principally cortisol.

It is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an important component of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also called Addison's disease, occurs when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient, resulting in chronically elevated ACTH levels.

When a pituitary tumor is the cause of elevated ACTH (from the anterior pituitary) this is known as Cushing's Disease and the constellation of signs and symptoms of the excess cortisol (hypercortisolism) is known as Cushing's syndrome. A deficiency of ACTH is a cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency. ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms.

Pituitary corticotroph adenomas secrete inappropriate amounts of ACTH, which results in disorderly and excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal gland 1).


Abellán-Galiana et al. propose an ACTH value <15 pg/mL as a good long-term prognostic marker in the postoperative period of Cushing's Disease. Reaching the ACTH nadir in less time is associated to a lesser recurrence rate 2).

1)
Aron DC, Findling JW, Tyrrell JB: Cushing's disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 16:705–730, 1987
2)
Abellán-Galiana P, Fajardo C, Riesgo-Suárez P, Pérez-Bermejo M, Ríos-Pérez C, Gómez-Vela J. Prognostic usefulness of ACTH in the postoperative period of Cushing's disease. Endocr Connect. 2019 Aug 1. pii: EC-19-0297.R1. doi: 10.1530/EC-19-0297. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31394502.
adrenocorticotropic_hormone.txt · Last modified: 2019/08/09 12:36 by administrador