Adult human multipotent neural cell

Adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs) are unique cells derived from adult human temporal lobes. They show multipotent differentiation potentials into neurons and astrocytes. In addition, they possess proangiogenic capacities. The objective of this study was to characterize ahMNCs in terms of expression of cell type-specific markers, in vitro differentiation potentials, and paracrine factors compared with several other cell types including fetal neural stem cells (fNSCs) to provide detailed molecular and functional features of ahMNCs. Interestingly, the expression of cell type-specific markers of ahMNCs could not be differentiated from those of pericytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or fNSCs. In contrast, differentiation potentials of ahMNCs and fNSCs into neural cells were higher than those of other cell types. Compared with MSCs, ahMNCs showed lower differentiation capacities into osteogenic and adipogenic cells. Moreover, ahMNCs uniquely expressed higher levels of MCP-1 and GRO family paracrine factors than fNSCs and MSCs. These high levels of MCP-1 and GRO family mediated in vivo proangiogenic effects of ahMNCs. These results indicate that ahMNCs have their own distinct characteristics that could distinguish ahMNCs from other cell types. Characteristics of ahMNCs could be utilized further in the preclinical and clinical development of ahMNCs for regenerative medicine. They could also be used as experimental references for other cell types including fNSCs.

Nam et al. analyzed genomic alterations of adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs), a type of human adult neural stem cells, after a long-term in vitro culture process (passage 15) using sensitive analysis techniques including karyotyping, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Although karyotyping did not find any major abnormalities in chromosomal number or structure, diverse copy number variations (CNVs) and genetic mutations were detected by aCGH and WES in all five independent ahMNCs. However, the number of CNVs and genetic mutations did not increase and many of them did not persist as in vitro culture progressed. Although most observed CNVs and genetic mutations were not shared by all five ahMNCs, nonsynonymous missense mutations at MUC4 were found in three out of five long-term cultured ahMNC lines. The genetic instability did not confer in vivo tumorigenic potential to ahMNCs. Collectively, these results indicate that, although genetic instability can be induced by long-term in vitro expansion of stem cells, it is not sufficient to fully exert the tumor formation capacity of stem cells. Other functional effects of such genetic instability need to be further elucidated 1)

Nam H, Lee IH, Sa JK, Kim SS, Pyeon HJ, Lee KH, Lee K, Lee SH, Joo KM. Effects of Long-Term In Vitro Expansion on Genetic Stability and Tumor Formation Capacity of Stem Cells. Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2021 Nov 4. doi: 10.1007/s12015-021-10290-z. Epub ahead of print. Erratum in: Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2022 Jan 24;: PMID: 34738209.
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