Spreading rapidly or highly invasive; difficult or impossible to treat successfully.
Aggressiveness has a high prevalence in psychiatric patients and is a major health problem. Two brain areas involved in the neural network of aggressive behavior are the amygdala and the hypothalamus. While pharmacological treatments are effective in most patients, some do not properly respond to conventional therapies and are considered medically refractory. In this population, surgical procedures (ie, stereotactic lesions and deep brain stimulation) have been performed in an attempt to improve symptomatology and quality of life. Clinical results obtained after surgery are difficult to interpret, and the mechanisms responsible for postoperative reductions in aggressive behavior are unknown.