The amygdalae (singular: amygdala; /əˈmɪɡdələ/; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greek ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil', listed in the Gray's Anatomy textbook as the nucleus amygdalæ, (translation from Arabic al-lauzatani) are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.

The human amygdala and hippocampus play important roles in face perception, but it remains unclear how task demands or evaluative contexts modulate neural face processing, especially at the single-neuron level in the human brain. In a study, Cao et al. comprehensively analyzed how task instruction modulates key aspects of face processing, including low-level facial features such as face shape and texture, social trait judgment of faces such as trustworthiness and dominance, as well as neural correlates of eye movement when viewing faces. This comprehensive survey of task modulation of face processing reveals both flexible and invariant neuronal processes in the human brain 1).

In 1958, Niemeyer described a more selective approach to the hippocampus and amygdala through the middle temporal gyrus 2).

Cao R, Todorov A, Brandmeir N, Wang S. Task modulation of single-neuron activity in the human amygdala and hippocampus. eNeuro. 2021 Dec 20:ENEURO.0398-21.2021. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0398-21.2021. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34933946.
Niemeyer P, Baldwin M, Bailey P. The transventricular amygdala-hippocampectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. In: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Springfield: Charles C Thomas; 1958:461–482
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