Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage outcome in elderly patients are at high risk for poor functional outcomes. However, among those presenting with good Hunt and Hess Stroke Scale scores, younger-elderly patients (ages 60-65 years) tend to fare better than older-elderly patients (ages >65 years). Elderly patients presenting with high-grade aSAH fare poorly regardless of age, which can inform clinical decision-making and prognostication 1).
They performed a retrospective analysis of the Bernese SAH database for poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade IV and V) elderly patients (age ≥60 years) suffering from aSAH admitted to the institution from 2005 to 2017. Patients were divided into 3 age groups (60-69, 70-79, and 80-90 years).
Survival analysis was performed to estimate mean survival and hazard ratios for death. Binary logarithmic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-3) and unfavorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6) outcome. Results- Increasing age was associated with an increased risk of death after aSAH. The hazard ratio increased by 6% per year of age ( P<0.001; hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.09) and 76% per decade ( P<0.001; hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.35-2.29). Mean survival was 56.3±8 months (patients aged 60-69 years), 31.6±7.6 months (70-79 years), and 7.6±5.8 months (80-90 years). Unfavorable outcomes 6 to 12 months after aSAH were strongly related to an older age. The odds ratio increased by 11% per year of age ( P<0.001; odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18) and 192% per decade ( P<0.001; odds ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.63-5.26). Conclusions- Risk for death and unfavorable outcome increases markedly with older age in elderly patients with poor-grade aSAH. Despite high initial mortality, treatment resulted in a reasonable proportion of favorable outcomes up to 79 years of age and only a small number of patients who were moderately or severely disabled 6 to 12 months after aSAH. Mean survival and proportion of favorable outcomes decreased markedly in patients older than 80 years 2).
It is also important to investigate the critical age for defining a higher risk population among elderly patients and the clinical grade at admission in order to provide a prognostic description and help guide the management of patients aged ≥ 70 years.
A retrospective study included 165 patients aged 70-90 years who underwent surgical or endovascular treatment for a ruptured aneurysm. In addition to medical and radiological data, telephone interviews were used to obtain the 1-year functional outcome.
Multivariate analysis revealed age (p = 0.001) and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade (p = 0.001), regardless of the treatment modalities (surgical versus endovascular), as significant risk factors for a poor outcome, while a receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed 75 years as an appropriate cutoff value for the patient age to predict a poor 1-year functional outcome (area under the curve: 0.683). For the patients aged 70-75 years with good (1-3) and poor (4-5) WFNS grades, 81.9 % and 42.9 % achieved a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-3), respectively, whereas for the patients over the critical age (> 75 years) with good and poor WFNS grades, 54.8 % and 5.9 % achieved a favorable outcome, respectively.
The long-term outcome for elderly patients with an aneurysmal SAH is affected primarily by the clinical condition at admission and the patient's age in relation to the critical age (> 75 years), regardless of the treatment modalities, including surgical clipping and endovascular coiling 3).