The technique of mechanically widening narrowed or obstructed artery, the latter typically being a result of atherosclerosis. An empty and collapsed balloon on a guide wire, known as a balloon catheter, is passed into the narrowed locations and then inflated to a fixed size using water pressures some 75 to 500 times normal blood pressure (6 to 20 atmospheres).

The balloon forces expansion of the inner white blood cell/clot plaque deposits and the surrounding muscular wall, opening up the blood vessel for improved flow, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. A stent may or may not be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure the vessel remains open.

see Carotid artery angioplasty

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)


Uno et al present the case of a patient who developed limb shaking transient ischemic attack associated with high-grade middle cerebral artery stenosis (M1), which was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The procedure was performed successfully without complication and the symptom disappeared immediately after the procedure. The patient remained free of symptoms at the 38-month follow-up. There was no tendency of restenosis of M1. In this case, PTA was technically feasible and beneficial for limb-shaking TIA with M1 stenosis. Limb-shaking TIA can be a symptom of high-grade stenosis of M1 1).

Uno J, Mineta H, Ren N, Takagishi S, Nagaoka S, Kameda K, Maeda K, Ikai Y, Gi H. [A Case of Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Presented with Limb-Shaking TIA]. Brain Nerve. 2016 Jul;68(7):865-869. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 27395471.
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