The angular artery is a significant terminal branch of the anterior or middle trunk of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) MCA. It emerges from the Sylvian fissure and passes over the anterior transverse temporal gyrus and usually divides into two branches. One to the branches supply the angular gyrus while the other supplies the supramarginal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the parietooccipital arcus (sulcus).
The angular artery is the terminal part of the facial artery; it ascends to the medial angle of the eye's orbit, imbedded in the fibers of the angular head of the Quadratus labii superioris, and accompanied by the angular vein.
On the cheek it distributes branches which anastomose with the infraorbital; after supplying the lacrimal sac and Orbicularis oculi, it ends by anastomosing with the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery.
The topography of the AA was classified into 4 types according to its course: Type I (persistent pattern), in which the AA traverses the lateral side of the nose (11%); Type II (detouring pattern), in which the AA traverses the cheek and tear trough area (18%); Type III (alternative pattern), in which the AA traverses the medial canthal area through a branch of the ophthalmic artery (22.8%); and Type IV (latent pattern), in which the AA is absent (26.3%).
The findings of this study will contribute toward improved outcomes for cosmetic surgery involving the injection of facial filler by enhancing the understanding of AA anatomy 1).