Anton Freiherr von Eiselsberg was born on July 31, 1860 at Schloss Steinhaus, Upper Austria.
A student of Theodor Billroth, Eiselsberg served as professor of medicine at Utrecht University and at University of Königsberg before being appointed head of the First Department of Surgery at the University of Vienna. He was one of the founders of neurosurgery, co-founder of the Austrian Cancer Society in 1910, and an honorary member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. It was his initiative that lead to the creation of the world-first emergency surgery station in Vienna, dramatically increasing the effectiveness of medical intervention after accidents.
Eiselsberg was awarded the second Lister Medal in 1927 for his contributions to surgical science. As part of the award, he was invited to give the Lister Memorial Lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in July 1927.
He himself died during the early days of World War II in an accident caused by the collision of two trains in the vicinity of St. Valentin, Lower Austria, on October 25, 1939.
He was one of the greatest surgeons, teachers and clinical researchers of his time. Billroth described him as “my best student.” In 1909 he founded, along with Julius Hochenegg the world's first model emergency rooms. Eiselsberg and Hochenegg are considered “fathers of the emergency rooms” (ER).
Anton von Eiselsberg was the first to resect a cerebral tumor at the First Surgical Clinic at the General Hospital in Vienna in 1904. He successfully removed a cerebral glioma, the first of no fewer than 15,000 tumors operated on at that hospital to date. von Eiselsberg and his successors, Egon Ranzi and Leopold Schönbauer, as heads of the First Surgical Clinic, devoted themselves intensively to brain surgery, and neurosurgery developed to be an integral part of Viennese surgery.