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arteriovenous_malformation_associated_aneurysm

Arteriovenous malformation associated aneurysm

It is generally believed that the combination of brain arteriovenous malformation BAVMs and intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is associated with higher hemorrhage rates at presentation and higher rehemorrhage rates and thus with a more aggressive course and natural history.

Epidemiology

There is wide variation in the literature on the prevalence of BAVM-associated aneurysms (range 2.7%-58%), with 10%-20% being most often cited in the largest case series.

Genetic risk

Possible involvement of SOX-17 and RBBP8, genes involved in cell cycle progression, deserves further investigation 1).

Outcome

The risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with unruptured BAVMs and coexisting IAs has been reported to be 7% annually, compared with 2%-4% annually for those with BAVM alone.

Classification

Several different classification systems have been applied in an attempt to better understand the natural history of this combination of lesions and implications for treatment. Independent of the classification used, it is clear that a few subtypes of aneurysms have a direct hemodynamic correlation with the BAVM itself. This is exemplified by the fact that the presence of a distal flow-related or an intranidal aneurysm appears to be associated with an increased hemorrhage risk, when compared with an aneurysm located on a vessel with no direct supply to the BAVM nidus.

Etiology

Debate still exists regarding the etiology of the association between those two vascular lesions, the subsequent implications for patients' risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and finally the determination of which patients warrant treatment and when.

Treatment

The ultimate goals of the treatment of a BAVM associated with an IA are to prevent hemorrhage, avoid stepwise neurological deterioration, and eliminate the mortality risk associated with recurrent hemorrhagic events. The treatment is only justifiable if the risks associated with an intervention are lower than or equivalent to the long-term risks of disability or mortality caused by the lesion itself. When faced with this difficult decision, a few questions need to be answered by the treating neurosurgeon: What is the mode of presentation? What is the symptomatic lesion? Which one of the lesions bled? What is the relationship between the BAVM and IA? Is it possible to safely treat both BAVM and IA? 2).

AAA was a significant risk factor for hemorrhage and was associated with a poor outcome. It seems worthwhile to consider whether the aneurysm itself is a risk factor or only an epiphenomenon of severely altered hemodynamics induced by these special arteriovenous malformations AVMs and therefore only the most common site of rupture. As the complication rate was low for aneurysm occlusion, Platz et al., recommend treating these aneurysms whenever possible. Furthermore, obliteration of the AVM should be strived for as this subtype may be associated with an increased risk of hemorrhage 3).

1)
Kremer PH, Koeleman BP, Pawlikowska L, Weinsheimer S, Bendjilali N, Sidney S, Zaroff JG, Rinkel GJ, van den Berg LH, Ruigrok YM, de Kort GA, Veldink JH, Kim H, Klijn CJ. Evaluation of genetic risk loci for intracranial aneurysms in sporadic arteriovenous malformations of the brain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014 Jul 21. pii: jnnp-2013-307276. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2013-307276. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25053769.
2)
Flores BC, Klinger DR, Rickert KL, Barnett SL, Welch BG, White JA, Batjer HH, Samson DS. Management of intracranial aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep;37(3):E11. doi: 10.3171/2014.6.FOCUS14165. PubMed PMID: 25175430.
3)
Platz J, Berkefeld J, Singer OC, Wolff R, Seifert V, Konczalla J, Güresir E. Frequency, risk of hemorrhage and treatment considerations for cerebral arteriovenous malformations with associated aneurysms. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2014 Nov;156(11):2025-34. doi: 10.1007/s00701-014-2225-3. Epub 2014 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 25246143.
arteriovenous_malformation_associated_aneurysm.txt · Last modified: 2014/10/20 22:51 (external edit)