Since 2005, Saito et al., removed gliomas in the precentral gyrus with combined functional mapping and estimation of intraoperative voluntary movement (IVM) during awake craniotomy and transcortical motor evoked potentials (MEPs).
The purpose of a study published in 2019 was to evaluate whether intraoperative findings of combined monitoring of IVM during awake craniotomy and transcortical MEP monitoring were useful for predicting postoperative motor function of patients with gliomas in the precentral gyrus.
The current study included 30 patients who underwent resection of precentral gyrus gliomas during awake craniotomy from April 2000 to January 2018. All tumors were removed with monitoring of IVM during awake craniotomy and transcortical MEPs. Postoperative motor function was classified as stable or declined, with the extent of decline categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. We defined moderate and severe deficits were those that hindered daily life.
In 28 of 30 cases, available waveforms were obtained with transcortical MEPs. The mean extent of resection (EOR) was 93%. Relative to preoperative status, motor function 6 months after surgery was considered stable in 20 patients and was considered to show mild decline in 7, moderate decline in 2, and severe decline in 1. Motor function 6 months after surgery was significantly correlated with IVM (p = 0.0096), changes in transcortical MEPs (decline ≤ or > 50%) (p = 0.0163), EOR, and ischemic lesions on postoperative MRI. Six patients with no change in IVM showed stable motor function 6 months after surgery. Only 2 patients with a decline in IVM and a decline in MEPs ≤ 50% had a decline in motor function 6 months after surgery (18%; 2/11 patients), whereas 11 patients with a decline in IVM and a decline in MEPs > 50% had such a decline in motor function (73%; 8/11 patients) including 2 patients with moderate and 1 with severe deficits. Three patients with moderate or severe motor deficits showed the lowest MEP values (< 100 µV).
Combined judgment from monitoring of IVM during awake craniotomy and transcortical MEPs is useful for predicting postoperative motor function during removal of gliomas in the precentral gyrus. Maximum resection was achieved with an acceptable morbidity rate. Thus, these tumors should not be considered unresectable 1).
Motomura et al. retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 consecutive patients with glial tumors in the eloquent brain areas who underwent awake surgery using iMRI. Volumetric analysis of MRI studies was performed. The pre-, intra-, and postoperative tumor volumes were measured in all cases using MRI studies obtained before, during, and after tumor resection. RESULTS Intraoperative MRI was performed to check for the presence of residual tumor during awake surgery in a total of 25 patients. Initial iMRI confirmed no further tumor resection in 9 patients (36%) because all observable tumors had already been removed. In contrast, intraoperative confirmation of residual tumor during awake surgery led to further tumor resection in 16 cases (64%) and eventually an EOR of more than 90% in 8 of 16 cases (50%). Furthermore, EOR benefiting from iMRI by more than 15% was found in 7 of 16 cases (43.8%). Interestingly, the increase in EOR as a result of iMRI for tumors associated mainly with the insular lobe was significantly greater, at 15.1%, than it was for the other tumors, which was 8.0% (p = 0.001).
This study revealed that combining awake surgery with iMRI was associated with a favorable surgical outcome for intrinsic brain tumors associated with eloquent areas. In particular, these benefits were noted for patients with tumors with complex anatomy, such as those associated with the insular lobe 2).
Four illustrative cases demonstrate the efficacy of using a tablet computer platform for advanced language mapping testing with sophisticated language paradigms, and the spatial agreement between intraoperative mapping and preoperative fMRI results. The testing platform substantially improved the ability of the surgeon to detect and characterize language deficits. Use of a written word generation task to assess language production helped confirm areas of speech apraxia and speech arrest that were inadequately characterized or missed with the use of traditional paradigms, respectively. Preoperative fMRI of the analogous writing task was also assistive, displaying excellent spatial agreement with intraoperative mapping in all 4 cases. Sole use of traditional testing paradigms can be limiting during awake craniotomy procedures. Comprehensive assessment of language function will require additional use of more sophisticated and ecologically valid testing paradigms. The platform presented here provides a means to do so 3).
Thirty-seven patients with brain tumor who underwent awake craniotomy were included in this study. Prior to craniotomy, the patient evaluated cognitive status, and during the surgery, each patient's performance and attitude toward cognitive tasks were recorded by neuropsychologists.
The present findings showed that the construction and calculation abilities of the patients were moderately correlated with their sleepiness.
These results indicate that the preoperative cognitive functioning of patients was related to their sleepiness during the awake craniotomy procedure and that the patients who exhibited sleepiness during an awake craniotomy had previously experienced reduced functioning in the parietal lobe 4).
From 1998 to 2007, 79 consecutive fully awake craniotomy (FAC)s for resection primary supratentorial brain tumors (PSBT) near or in eloquent brain areas (EBA), performed by a single surgeon, were prospectively followed. Two groups were defined based on time period and surgical team: group A operated on from March 1998 to July 2004 without a multidisciplinary team and group B operated on from August 2004 to October 2007 in a multidisciplinary setting. For both time periods, two groups were defined: group I had no previous history of craniotomy, while group II had undergone a previous craniotomy for a PSBT. Forty-six patients were operated on in group A, 46 in group B, 49 in group I and 30 in group II. Psychological assessment and selection were obligatory. The preferred anesthetic procedure was an intravenous high-dose opioid infusion (Fentanil 50 microg, bolus infusion until a minimum dose of 10 microg/kg). Generous scalp and periosteous infiltrations were performed. Functional cortical mapping was performed in every case. Continuous somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and phase reversal localization were available in 48 cases. Standard microsurgical techniques were performed and monitored by continuous clinical evaluation.
Clinical data showed differences in time since clinical onset (p < 0.001), slowness of thought (p = 0.02) and memory deficits (p < 0.001) between study periods and also time since recent seizure onset for groups I and II (p = 0.001). Mean tumor volume was 51.2 +/- 48.7 cm3 and was not different among the four groups. The mean extent of tumor reduction was 90.0 +/- 12.7% and was similar for the whole series. A trend toward a larger incidence of glioblastoma multiforme occurred in group B (p = 0.05) and I (p = 0.04). Recovery of previous motor deficits was observed in 75.0% of patients, while motor worsening in 8.9% of cases. Recovery of semantic language deficits, control of refractory seizures and motor worsening were statistically more frequent in group B (p = 0.01). Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 89.9% of patients, which was similar for all groups. Clinical complications were minimal, and surgical mortality was 1.3%.
These data suggest that FAC is safe and effective for the resection of PSBT in EBA as the main technique, and in a multidisciplinary context is associated with greater clinical and physiological monitoring. The previous history of craniotomy for PSBT did not seem to influence the outcome 5).