The symptoms include vision deterioration, ophthalmoplegia with diplopia, exophthalmos, conjunctival injection, chemosis, ocular bruit, seizures, or neurological deficit.
Endovascular treatment remains the gold standard for treatment through the transvenous or transarterial routes. The transvenous approaches have been proved to be the first option. Endovascular access through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) or inferior petrosal sinus have been widely used. The problem arises when there is no vascular access. For these cases, different approaches have been described, such as: direct access to the SOV; combining direct access to the SOV along with blind probing of the proximal occluded SOV; and a direct puncture of the cavernous sinus. But these techniques are very aggressive and can cause serious complications.
As a result Castaño C et al. describe a new alternative technique, which is effective and less invasive for the treatment of these special cases.
They report two cases of Barrow type 'B' CCFs that did not have vascular access (neither arterial nor venous) to embolise fistulas with coils or glue, and which were successfully resolved with a flow diverter (Pipeline) stent in the internal carotid artery.
To our knowledge, this treatment has not previously been described for this pathology.
The placement of a flow diverter stent in the internal carotid artery is an effective alternative technique in those cases of Barrow type 'B' CCFs that have no vascular access (neither venous nor arterial) 1).