A study included all patients with atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination (BI) with occipitalized C1 arch. Study techniques included Nurick grading, computed tomography scan to study atlanto-dental interval, BI, hyper-lordosis, and neck tilt. Sagittal inclination (SI), coronal inclination (CI), cranio-cervical tilt, presence of pseudo-joints, and anomalous vertebral artery were also noted. Patients underwent DCER with/without joint remodeling or extra-articular distraction (EAD) based on the SI being <100°, 100°-160°, or >160° respectively. In cases with pseudo-joints, joint remodeling was performed in type I and EAD in type II. Customized 'bullet shaped' PSC spacers (n=124) and prototype of the universal craniovertebral junction reducer (UCVJR, n=36) were useful.
A total of 148 patients with average age 27.25±17.43 years, ranging from 3 to 71 years (87 males) were operated. Nurick's grading improved from 3.14±1.872 to 1.22±1.17 (p<0.0001). Fifty-two percent of total joints (n=154/296 joints) were either type I (19%)/type II (33%) pseudo-j oints. All traditional indices such as Chamberlein line, McRae line, atlanto-dental interval, and Ranawat line improved (p<at least 0.001). BI, SI, and CI values correlated with type of pseudo-joints (p<0.0001). Side of neck tilt correlated with the type of pseudo-joint (p<0.0001). Cervical hyperlordosis improved significantly (p<0.0001).
Occipito-C2 pseudo-joints are important in determining the severity of BI. Asymmetrical pseudo-joint causes coronal/neck tilt. Type of pseudo-joint can strategize by DCER. Customized instruments and implants make technique safe, effective and easier 1).