Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa (the HUGO-approved official symbol, CTNNB1; HGNC ID, HGNC:2514), also called beta-catenin (or β-catenin), is a dual function protein, regulating the coordination of cell–cell adhesion and gene transcription. In humans, the CTNNB1 protein is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene.
In a study, Zhang et al. revealed the function of AQP1 in astrocytoma progression and provided the first clinical evidence that AQP1 expression was positively correlated with β-catenin. Furthermore, they proved the functional role of AQP1/β-catenin pathway in astrocytoma progression. More importantly, they discovered that combination of AQP1 and β-catenin expression was an independent prognosis factor for astrocytoma patients and it was a better survival predictor than either AQP1 or β-catenin alone. In conclusion, the study provided a novel more precise prognostication for predicting astrocytoma prognosis based on combinatorial analysis of AQP1 and β-catenin expression 1).
It is a member of the catenin protein family and homologous to γ-catenin.
Mutations and overexpression of β-catenin are associated with many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, malignant breast tumors, ovarian and endometrial cancer.
β-catenin is regulated and destroyed by the beta-catenin destruction complex, and in particular by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, encoded by the tumour-suppressing APC gene. Therefore genetic mutation of the APC gene is also strongly linked to cancers, and in particular colorectal cancer resulting from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is frequently dysregulated in human tumors and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis; however, the roles of microRNAs in mediating Wnt/β-catenin pathway are not well understood.
Expression of WNT3a, cytoplasmic β-catenin and TCF4 was significantly associated with the histological malignancy grade and with a worse prognosis for patients with glioma 2).