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brain_abscess

Brain abscess

Brain abscesses are suppurative infections of the brain parenchyma surrounded by a vascularized capsule.

Types

Traumatic brain abscess

Non Traumatic brain abscess


The most frequent intracranial locations (in descending order of frequency) are: frontal-temporal, frontal-parietal, parietal, cerebellar, and occipital lobes.

Otogenic brain abscess

Epidemiology

In a article, Chen review the literature to find out how the epidemiology of this disease has changed through the years and re-visit the basic pathological process of abscess evolution and highlight the new research in the biochemical pathways that initiate and regulate this process 1).

The epidemiology of brain abscess has changed with the increasing incidence of this infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients, and the decreasing incidence of brain abscess related to sinusitis and otitis 2).

There have been several trends in the epidemiology of brain abscess over recent decades. One trend is that there appears to be a trend toward a decreasing incidence of brain abscess. In a population-based study of residents of Olmstead County, Minnesota, the incidence rate was 1.3 per 100,000 patient-years from 1935 to 1944 compared with 0.9 per 100,000 patient-years from 1965 to 1981 3).

Etiology

Clinical features

Similar to any other mass lesion but tend to progress rapidly.

Abscess formation should be considered in case of clinical deterioration, headache, and any neurological deficit after febrile episodes.

Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis

Complications

Intraventricular rupture of brain abscess (IVROBA)

Strongly influences poor outcome in patients with cyanotic heart disease. The key to decreasing poor outcomes may be the prevention and management of IVROBA. To reduce operative and anesthetic risk in these patients, abscesses should be managed by less invasive aspiration methods guided by computed tomography. Abscesses larger than 2 cm in diameter, in deep-located or parieto-occipital regions, should be aspirated immediately and repeatedly, mainly using computed tomography-guided methods to decrease intracranial pressure and avoid IVROBA. IVROBA should be aggressively treated by aspiration methods for the abscess coupled with the appropriate intravenous and intrathecal administration of antibiotics while evaluating intracranial pressure pathophysiology 4).

Treatment

Management

Outcome

Significant advances in the diagnosis and management of bacterial brain abscess over the past several decades have improved the expected outcome of a disease once regarded as invariably fatal. Despite this, intraparenchymal abscess continues to present a serious and potentially life-threatening condition 5).

There has been a gradual improvement in the outcome of patients with brain abscess over the past 50 years, which might be driven by improved brain imaging techniques, minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, and protocoled antibiotic treatment. Multicenter prospective studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to further advance treatment and prognosis in brain abscess patients.

Our understanding of brain abscesses has increased by meta-analysis on clinical characteristics, ancillary investigations, and treatment modalities. Prognosis has improved over time, likely due to improved brain imaging techniques, minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, and protocoled antibiotic treatment 6).


Current evidences suggest that for encapsulated brain abscess in superficial non-eloquent area, abscess resection compared to abscess aspiration had lower post-operative residual abscess rate; lower re-operation rate; higher rate of improvement in neurological status within 1 month after surgery, shorter duration of post-operative antibiotics and average length of hospital stay. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of improvement in neurological status at 3 months post-operative and the mortality 7).

Case series

Case reports

Books

1)
Chen M, Low DCY, Low SYY, Muzumdar D, Seow WT. Management of brain abscesses: where are we now? Childs Nerv Syst. 2018 Oct;34(10):1871-1880. doi: 10.1007/s00381-018-3886-7. Epub 2018 Jul 3. PubMed PMID: 29968000.
2)
Calfee DP, Wispelwey B. Brain abscess. Semin Neurol. 2000;20(3):353-60. Review. PubMed PMID: 11051299.
3)
Nicolosi A, Hauser WA, Musicco M, Kurland LT: Incidence and prognosis of brain abscess in a defined population: Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935-1981. Neuroepidemiology 1991;10:122-131.
4)
Takeshita M, Kagawa M, Yato S, Izawa M, Onda H, Takakura K, Momma K. Current treatment of brain abscess in patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease. Neurosurgery. 1997 Dec;41(6):1270-8; discussion 1278-9. PubMed PMID: 9402578.
5)
atel K, Clifford DB. Bacterial brain abscess. Neurohospitalist. 2014 Oct;4(4):196-204. doi: 10.1177/1941874414540684. PubMed PMID: 25360205; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4212419.
6)
Brouwer MC, van de Beek D. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of brain abscesses. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016 Nov 8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27828809.
7)
Zhai Y, Wei X, Chen R, Guo Z, Raj Singh R, Zhang Y. Surgical outcome of encapsulated brain abscess in superficial non-eloquent area: A systematic review. Br J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov 16:1-6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26569628.
brain_abscess.txt · Last modified: 2018/09/08 22:21 by administrador