1. C2 pedicle screw placement (pars interarticularis screws): directed medially.
2. lateral mass screws: directed laterally. Length is sized to fall short of foramen transversarium
3. C1–2 transarticular screws: associated with more risk of VA injury
4. translaminar screws: 1 year stability appears to be less than C2 pedicle screws when used for subaxial fusions, but was ≈ as effective for axial fusions (C1–2 or C1–3). May be useful as a “bail- out” for subaxial fusions when the C2 pars diameter is too small for pedicle screws.