Cancer also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.

Possible signs and symptoms include: a new lump, abnormal bleeding, a prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements, among others.

While these symptoms may indicate cancer they may also occur due to other issues.

There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.

Accumulating evidence revealed that IGF2BP2 mediates the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and tumorigenesis. A review provides insight into the potential involvement of this RNA-binding protein in the link between Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer 1).

Although cancer classification has improved, there has been no general approach for identifying new cancer classes (class discovery) or for assigning tumors to known classes (class prediction). Here, a generic approach to cancer classification based on gene expression monitoring by DNA microarrays is described and applied to human acute leukemias as a test case. A class discovery procedure automatically discovered the distinction between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) without previous knowledge of these classes. An automatically derived class predictor was able to determine the class of new leukemia cases. The results demonstrate the feasibility of cancer classification based solely on gene expression monitoring and suggest a general strategy for discovering and predicting cancer classes for other types of cancer, independent of previous biological knowledge 2).

Leukemia and prostate cancer are the most common systemic cancers associated with subdural hematoma SDH, and gliomas may predispose to SDH more often than previously recognized. Coagulopathy is common and associated with the worst outcome, but many patients experience good functional outcome and survival 3).

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as novel clinically blood-based biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

Cancer diagnosis

see Cancer treatment

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is a rare complication of cancer

Cao J, Yan W, Ma X, Huang H, Yan H. Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 - a potential link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jun 1:dgab391. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab391. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34061963.
Golub TR, Slonim DK, Tamayo P, Huard C, Gaasenbeek M, Mesirov JP, Coller H, Loh ML, Downing JR, Caligiuri MA, Bloomfield CD, Lander ES. Molecular classification of cancer: class discovery and class prediction by gene expression monitoring. Science. 1999 Oct 15;286(5439):531-7. PubMed PMID: 10521349.
Reichman J, Singer S, Navi B, Reiner A, Panageas K, Gutin PH, Deangelis LM. Subdural hematoma in patients with cancer. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jul;71(1):74-9. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182517938. PubMed PMID: 22705720.
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